Anthropological Abstracts

 

Cultural/Social Anthropology

from German-speaking countries

 

edited by

Ulrich Oberdiek

 

 

 

www.8.Abstracts of 2007

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

©Ulrich Oberdiek

Reprint only by written permission of the editor:

Editor@anthropology-online.de

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contents

 

 

 

Editorial                                                                                              7

                                              

 

General/Theoretical/Historical Studies                                                9  

 

 

Regional Studies

 

                            Africa                                                                   63                      

 

                            The Americas                                                       93                      

 

                            Asia                                                                    111                              

 

                            Australia & Oceania                                           129  

 

 

                            Europe                                                                137

 

 

Periodicals Scanned                                                                       151                             

 

Author Index                                                                                  153   

 

 

Subject Index                                                                                  159 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Editorial

 

 

 

This reference journal is published once a year and announces - in English language - most publications in the field of cultural/social anthropology published in the German language area (Austria, Germany, Switzerland). Since many of these publications have been written in German, and most German publications in the field of anthropology are not included in major, English language abstracting services, Anthropological Abstracts (AA) offers an opportunity and convenient source of information for anthro-pologists who do not read German, to become aware of anthropological research and publications in German-speaking countries, and thus to the researchers themselves. Abstracted are journal articles, monographs, anthologies, exhibition catalogs, yearbooks, etc. Occasionally, publications in English, or French, are included as well if the publisher is less well-known internationally and if it is likely that the publication will not be noticed abroad.

The present internet volume of Anthropological Abstracts (www.8) is also represented as Vol. 6.2007, published with Lit Publishers.

 

Some technical remarks

This reference journal uses a flexible approach in representing publications: While in most cases abstracts are supplied, for some anthologies the Current Contents method is applied, i.e. only authors and titles are printed. So technically, this is a combined approach: an Abstracting Reference Journal, and the Current Contents principle listing names and titles only. However, the complete material, including those papers which appear by title only, has been thoroughly indexed.

Abstracts supplied by authors are marked by ## before and after the abstract. Due to space limitations they may be abbreviated. Up to three editors of an anthology will be listed; if there are more, only the first will appear.

Only those papers in journals will be abstracted that are relevant to cultural/social anthropology - which mainly applies in the case of interdisciplinary, or specifically sociological journals. AA also tries to cover subjects related to, or influencing, anthropology, i.e. if they are relevant for present discourses. Thus, there may be material from history, folklore studies, linguistics, sociology, philosophy, etc., if there is an intersection with present debates in anthropology.

Keywords serve as an "abstract of the abstract" - for a quick assessment of the contents. Page numbers in the Subject Index refer to the page where the Keywords  listings appear.

Terms of the Subject Index - which is identical with the Keywords in alphabetical order - do not follow the Thesaurus principle but are chosen rather loosely and generously, according to need, and there is no strict formal rule to limit their number. In many cases, Subject Index terms try to be specific rather than general, in order to reduce the time of searching. Thus, if there is a topic relating to “history”, it will be specified like “history (Guinea)”, or “history and literacy”, so that users do not have to check all “history” entries.

Regarding alphabetical order, the German Umlaut (ä, ö, ü) will be broken up into ae, oe, ue in the text, but is disregarded in the indexes.

 

The present volume is published somewhat belatedly - due to heavy work - for which I apologize; the next one should follow rather soon so that the journal”s timely publication will be resumed in the near future.

The publishers, museums and research institutions must be thanked for their generally prompt deliveries of the books requested for Anthropological Abstracts.

 

 

 

 

PD Dr. Ulrich Oberdiek,  

Institut für Ethnologie, Ruprecht-Karls-

Universität Heidelberg, Germany -

and Lecturer at:

Institut für Ethnologie und Afrikanistik (Department für Kulturwissenschaften und Altertumskunde), Ludwig-Maximilians-Uni-versität, München, Germany.

 

Contact:

Quäkerst. 7

79102 Freiburg/Germany

Phone+Fax: Germany:  0761/70 72 344

e-mail: Ulrich.Oberdiek@t-online.de


 

 

 

 

 

GENERAL/THEORETICAL/HISTORICAL STUDIES

 

 

 

ADLOFF, FRANK

Marcel Mauss - Durkheimien oder eigenständiger Klassiker der französi-schen Soziologie?

Berliner Journal für Soziologie 17.2007:231-251

Keywords: Mauss, M., Durkheim, E., French sociology, anti-utilitarian sociology, structuralism, utilitarianism

 

Marcel Mauss - Durkheimien, or individual classical author of French sociology?

##Since the mid-1990s, the question of an independent contribution of Marcel Mauss to social theory has been intensly debated in France. This paper shows that Mauss can be seen as a classic of a symbolic, non-structuralist, interactionist and anti-utilitarian sociology if he is more clearly set apart from Durkheim and untangled from the influences of structuralism and structuralist utilitarianism. Mauss' contribution to French sociology is similar to Mead's and Simmel's contributions to American and German sociology respectively: these classical thinkers represent a third paradigm which goes beyond the dichotomy of instrumental rationality and normative action. According to Mauss, particularly the logic of the gift establishes an independent interaction order and the act of giving has to be recognised as an intrinsic symbolic as well as a social fact. Following Mauss, the gift represents and embodies symbolic interaction.##

 

 

 

AHRENS, JÖRN, MIRJAM BIERMANN & GEORG TOEPFER (Eds.)

Die Diffusion des Humanen. Grenzregime zwischen Leben und Kulturen

Frankfurt/M.: Lang Verlag 2007

191 pp., Euro 34.80; ISBN 3-631-55554-5

Keywords: diffusion, borders of the humane, humaneness and diffusion, genetics, animals and man, primatology, dignity of man, body and memory, machine and humans, skin and memory, nature and culture, life optimization

 

The diffusion of the humane. Borders between life and cultures

The papers are based on a meeting at Humboldt University of Berlin in July 2005, on the phenomenon of diffusion seen from various perspectives, discussing reasons for, and forms of diffusion, its promotion and refusal as well as effects.

MACHO, THOMAS: Tiere, Menschen, Maschinen. Zur Kritik der anthropologischen Differenz [Animals, humans, machines. On the critique of the anthropological difference]

BECK, STEFAN: Gedächtnisse des Körpers. Zum Konzept der Haut als Transaktionszone zwischen Natur und Kultur [Memories of the body. On the concept of skin as a zone of transaction between nature and culture]

BÖHME, HARTMUT: Anthropologische Differenz. Ober das Verhältnis von Natur und Kultur in der Debatte über das Humanum und die menschliche Würde [Anthropological difference, Or, the relation of nature and culture in the debate on the humane and human dignity]

JANICH, PETER: Natur und Kultur. Philosophische Argumente für ihre Differenzierung und Polarisierung [Nature and culture. Philosophical arguments for their qualification and polarization]

LIST, ELISABETH: Optimierung des Lebens? Die Biotechnologien und die Frage nach der Verfassung des Menschlichen [Optimization of life? Biotechnologies and the question of the human condition]

NEUMANN-HELD, EVA: Genetik und Menschenbild zwischen Determinismus und Diffusität [Genetics and the image of man between determinism and diffuseness]

RIXEN, STEPHAN: Der Embryo zwischen Person und Sache. Zum Umgang von Gesetzgeber und Gerichten mit unscharfen anthropologischen Konzepten [The embryo between person and matter. How lawmakers and courts deal with fuzzy anthropological concepts]

JASANOFF, SHEILA: The Permissible Human. Transcendental Concepts and Fragmented Realities in the Law

RABINOW, PAUL: Diffusion of the Human Thing: Zones of Virulence & Dignity

BECKER, THOMAS: Leben als Medium der kalten Normalisierung [Life as a medium of cold normalization]

RIEGER, STEFAN: Diffusion und Vagheit. Zu einer Wissenschafts-geschichte des Genus Hydra [Diffusion and vagueness. On a scientific history of the genus Hydra]

 

 

 

 

 

AKASHE-BÖHME, FARIDEH

Sexualität und Körperpraxis im Islam

Frankfurt/M.: Brandes & Apsel 2006

156 pp., Euro 14.90; ISBN 3-86099-851-X

Keywords: sexuality in Islam, Islamic sexuality, body in Islam, secularization and Islam, honor, shame, purity, taboo, veiling

 

Sexuality and body praxis in Islam

The author deals with gender roles in Islam, conceptualized in “Islamic anthropology”, i.e. prescriptions in Islam (such as the Koran), but also through western categories in informed by anthropological insight and data. These “semantic” and hermeneutical and interpretive reflections include the areas of purity and taboo (purity, blood, cleaning rules, visibility/shame), honor (its functions, virginity, extramarital relations, the virtuous woman), the economy of lust and the politics of pain (gender gender asymmetry, prudery, homosexuality, pain politics), gender biographies (life course: birth and infancy, circumcision, marriage including arranged and forced marriage, menopause, death), patriarchal structures (asymmetry, Islam as patriarchal religion, manhood as privilege), and finally Muslims in a secularized world are discussed (secularism, laizism, human rights, tolerance).

 

 

 

ALBERT, GERT

Idealtypen und das Ziel der Soziologie

Berliner Journal für Soziologie 17.2007:51-75

Keywords: ideal types, Weber, M., Schmid, M., philosophy of science, hypotheses, models

 

Ideal types and the aim of sociology

##Michael Schmid's criticism of Max Weber's methodology is both the background and touchstone for a rational reconstruction of Webers doctrine of the idealtypes. In my view, idealtypes are non-falsifiable, idealised theoretical models of a non-statement type of view. This recent approach in the philosophy of science distinguishes between theoretical models on the one hand and theoretical hypotheses on the other. I argue that only the application of these models attains the character of hypotheses. In Weber we find a three-step conception of explanation, which encompasses social rules and idealtypes on both the micro and the macro level. The ultimate aim of Weber's sociology is a macro-socially induced formulation of social species (Arten). They allow a categorisation of the social rules, which are explained through types of action and by means of idealtypes on the macro-level, which serve the function of a theoretical unification. For Weber, macrophenomena allow for a species-realistic interpretation. This realism of social species states an ontological order of empirical reality. Objective truth then means the correct registration of the taxonomical order of social reality and the classification of historical phenomena in this taxonomical order. Weber is an ontological individualist, but, contrary to dominant opinion, a methodological holist.##

 

 

 

BAECKER, DIRK

Studien zur nächsten Gesellschaft

(Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft 1856)

Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp Verlag 2007

229 pp., Euro 10,-; ISBN 3-518-29456-7

Keywords: future society, types of society, societies, modern society, Antiquity, computer society, Luhmann, N., high culture, print, scriptural society

 

Studien on the future society

From a perspective of culture theory and sociology Baecker conceptualizes types of cultures, from antiquity to the future, a succession in which he posits “computer society” as being the next one. He sees three types in this context: the (western) scriptural society of Antiquity, then print media society of modernity, and computer society. While in the Antiquity type there was an abundance of symbols, in modernity there was an abundance of criticism/critical thought, and, one may assume, computer society is chacacterized by an abundance of control (facilitated by the very medium). Following N. Luhmann, these various abundances will have to be used selectively, if the respective society is not to “collapse”. Baecker illustrates his thesis by describing structure and culture of: tribal societies, high culture of Antiquity, Modernity, and the coming culture - exemplified in the cases of theater, architecture, labor, organization, university, images, and the family. This aims at enabling sociology to make phenomena visible in a rather simple way (via ideas) which are interwoven in manifold ways.

 

 

 

 

 

BÄHR, ANDREAS, PETER BURSCHEL & GABRIELE JANCKE (Eds.)

Räume des Selbst. Selbstzeugnisforschung transkulturell

(Selbstzeugnisse der Neuzeit 19)

Köln: Böhlau Verlag 2007

320 pp., Euro 39.90; ISBN 3-412-23406-5

Keywords: narrative, self-representation, life-narrative, violence and self, coercion and self, dream and self, space and self, medieval self-representations, other and self, women (Japan)

 

Spaces of the self. Transcultural life-narrative/writing research

The 18 papers in this book are results of a DFG-sponsored research group of scholars. The spatial turn, the editors oppine, has evaded life-narrative research until now - even though in this research area there is frequent mentioning of “inner” and “outer” spaces, and many metaphors of space. The leading question of the book is thus: What is the importance of space and of spaces for writing about oneself? The papers (by historians, philologists etc.) - some of which are in English language - are grouped under five headings: 1. space and ritual; 2. Senses of belonging and social relationships - transterritorial spaces?; 3. Locations of violence and perception of self. Violence, coercion, transgression; 4. Conversion, resistance, altering space; 5. Dream, person, space. The authors deal with self-representations in early modern Europe and Japan, 20th century representations from the Near East region, or cases of resistance, and conversion from 19th century Japan and 17th century Europe, and there are studies of person and space from medieval China, Korea, Japan, and Europe.

 

 

 

BALZER, CARSTEN

The great drag queen hype. Thoughts on cultural globalisation and autochthony

Paideuma 51.2005:111-131

Keywords: drag queens, globalization, autochthony, subcultures

 

##In 1995 the Afro-American drag queen RuPaul, who had arrived in New York ten years earlier, where she first lived with other homeless drag queens... gained international success as a singer, performer when his or her video "Supermodel of the world" was shown on MTV... This conflation raises questions concerning cultural globalisation - the influences of 'the vital forces of a global consumer and media culture'... The above questions can be addressed by comparing the evolution of the drage queen subcultures of the mid-1990s in Berlin and Rio de Janeiro... with those that emerged in New York...##

 

 

 

BEER, BETTINA

Frauen in der deutschsprachigen Ethnologie. Ein Handbuch

Köln: Böhlau Verlag 2007

345 pp., Euro 39.90; ISBN 3-412-11206-6

Keywords: women in anthropology, anthropology and women, gender and anthropologists

 

Women in German-speaking anthropology. A handbook

This book deals with female anthropologists of the 19th and early 20th centuries publishing in German. These 67 women are portrayed in their work, occasionally some quotations from their writings, and photographs. The portraits differ in length, from one page to about ten. Beer desribes personal background, scholarly achievements - what they contributed to anthropology, whether they traveled individually or in company. Why did they do it, did they have families, was their career successful? Beer found that they contributed to theoretical discourses and the institutionalization of the discipline, and especially in war times they safeguarded holdings of institutes and museums. The concluding pages of the book reflect on gender relations and perspectives.

 

 

 

BEER, BETTINA & HANS FISCHER (Eds.)

Ethnologie. Einführung und Überblick. 6., überarbeitete Auflage

Berlin: Reimer Verlag 2006

443 pp., Euro 24.90; ISBN 3-496-02795-9

Keywords: anthropology textbook, textbook anthropology

 

Anthropology. Introduction and overview. 6th enlarged edition

This introductory textbook, designed for students of anthropology and related disciplines, was first published in 1983. Since then a number of authors of the various chapters have changed and the content has been updated and enlarged. This present edition includes chapters on the following subjects: anthropology as scientific discipline; the development of anthropology; the notions of ethnos, ethnic group, and culture; and fieldwork - as basic categories or subject fields. The next chapters deal with sub-areas of anthropology: economic anthropology; social anthropology; political anthropology; juridical anthropology; anthropology of religion; art anthropology; material culture; ethno-linguistics. The following approaches in anthropology are included: ethno-history/historical anthropology; structuralism; anthropological gender research; cognitive anthropology; cultural ecology; urban anthropology; interethnic relations; intercultural methods of comparison; and finally: culture - system - globalization (which deals with the systems aspect of cultures and their interrelatedness).

 

 

 

BENDA-BECKMANN, FRANZ VON, KEEBET VON BENDA-BECKMANN & BERTRAM TURNER

Umstrittene Traditionen in Marokko und Indonesien

Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 132.2007:15-35

Keywords: revitalization of tradition, legal pluralism, access to resources, good governance, governance, resources, agency, glocalization

 

##Disputed traditions in Morocco and Indonesia

In the current era of globalization and transnationalisation of law, the continued vitality and revitalisation of tradition in legal systems seems paradoxical. Common explanations consider the renewed emphasis on tradition in law and religion as an indication of the failure or the imminent breakdown of the state or see it primarily as a rejection of dominant globalisation processes. In both approaches, tradition primarily figures as a relic from the past and attempts to revitalise it are seen as inward and backward-looking. We argue that these explanations are unsatisfactory. Based on our research findings in Indonesia and Morocco, we argue, that a wide range of actors - from global players to local people - refers to tradition as a strategic tool in the legal repertoire in order to bring forward their respective interests in very different fields ranging from development goals such as sustainability, nature protection and good governance, to absolute hegemony in the religious field. Not conservatism but discontent with the distribution of resources and power motivate actors to look for alternative legitimisation of their claims.##

 

 

 

 

BENZING, TOBIAS

Ritual und Sakrament. Liminalität bei Victor Turner

(Würzburger Studien zur Fundamentaltheologie 36)

Frankfurt/M.: Lang Verlag 2007

121 pp., Euro 27.50; ISBN 3-631-55761-7

Keywords: ritual and sacrament, sacrament and ritual, Turner, V., theology and V. Turner, liminality, communitas, social drama, drama, Gennep, A.v.

 

Ritual and sacrament. Liminality in Victor Turner

This theological study of Turner”s ritual theory starts from the theological position and argument of a loss of importance of “the sacraments” - which for the author leads to a new search for the position of “life and sacrament”. So he aims at a new definition of the relations of ritual and sacrament based on Turner”s basic notions of social drama, ritual process, liminality, and communitas. Confronting “classical” (i.e. theological) definitions of sacrament with Turner”s notions facilitates a new perspective: whether the sacramentality of rituals, and the liminality of sacraments can be stated - which, according to the author, can be successful on the basis of Turner”s theories. Benzing discusses life as social drama, the ritual process (including Ndembu rituals and Turner”s use of “ritual symbols”), presents van Gennep”s three-phase model and Turner”s basic notions. The last chapter positions his findings according to fundamental theology, and he concludes that a new theology of sacraments has to be informed by the liminality of life.

 

 

 

BICHLER, REINHOLD

Historiographie - Ethnographie - Utopie. Gesammelte Schriften, Teil 1: Studien zu Herodots Kunst der Historie. Herausgegeben von Robert Rollinger

(Philippika 18,1)

Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag 2007

274 pp., Euro 48,-; ISBN 3-447-05616-8

Keywords: Herodotus, ethnography of Herodotus, Barbarians and Herodotus, economy and Herodotus, women and Herodotus, sexuality and Herodotus

 

Historiography - ethnography - utopia. Collected works, part 1: Studies of Herodotus”s “Art of history”. Edited by Robert Rollinger

The 13 papers on Herodotus and history in this book have been published before, scattered in festschriften and anthologies over two decades, some of which are difficult to find and access. The topics of the papers cover Herodotus and economy (“the power of money”), imaginations of empire in Herodotus, the synchronism of Himera and Salamis, Herodotus”s notion of Barbarians (and its instrumentalization with political-ideological intention), Herodotus as a poet of a Delphi prosodic oracle, remarks on the classical history of the Greeks, “Barbarian” inscriptions (by Egyptians, Babylonians, Persians...), Herodotus”s image of women and sexual mores, Herodotus”s ethnography, the chronological image of the archaic era in the historiography of Greek Classicism, the image of Assyrian and Babylonian kingdoms, on the literary estimation of the Persica, on a leitmotif in Herodotus”s history of Persia.

 

 

 

BINSBERGEN, WIM M.J. VAN & PETER L. GESCHIERE (Eds.)

Commodification: Things, agency, and identities. (The social life of things revisited)

Wien: Lit Verlag 2005

400 pp., Euro 34.90; ISBN 3-8258-8804-5

Keywords: commodification, agency, identities and agency, values and commodification, debt, materiality, goods, gift, colonialism, organ extraction narratives, wealth, Chulalongkorn (king), things (social life of)

 

##The present book”s emphasis is on Africa rather than on Asia and Europe, and on the process through which commodities come into being. The empirically rich and analytically provocative contributions... show commodification to be a powerful tool towards understanding the modern world, especially South economies and South-North interactions today. Commodification does not exhaust the ontological dimension of things, agency, and identities: but it greatly illuminates these three central concepts, and thus is conducive to the much-needed dialogue between anthropology and economics.##

BINSBERGEN, WIM M.J. VAN: Commodification: Things, agency, and identities: Introduction

APPADURAI, ARJUN: Materiality in the future of anthropology

ALEXANDER, PAUL & JENNIFER ALEXANDER: Setting prices, creating money, building markets: Notes on the politics of value in Jepara, Indonesia

RENFREW, COLIN: Archaeology and commodification: The role of things in societal transformation

ROITMAN, JANET: Unsanctioned wealth, or the productivity of debt in northern Cameroon

HUNT, NANCY ROSE: Bicycles, birth certificates, and clysters: Colonial objects as reproductive debris in Mobutu's Zaire

COMAROFF, JEAN & JOHN L. COMAROFF: Colonizing currencies: Beasts, banknotes, and the colour of money in South Africa

WEISS, BRAD: Coffee, cowries, and currencies: Transforming material wealth in northwest Tanzania

DIJK, RIJK VAN: The moral life of the gift in Ghanaian Pentecostal churches in the diaspora: Questions of (in-)dividuality and (in-)alienability in transcultural reciprocal relations

DILLEY, ROY: The visibility and invisibility of production: In different social contexts among Senegalese craftsmen

GESCHIERE, PETER: 'Tournaments of value' in the forest area of southern Cameroon: 'Multiple self-realization' versus colonial coercion during the rubber boom (1900-1913)

ROWLANDS, MICHAEL: Value and the cultural transmission of things

LEACH, JAMES: Livers and lives: Organ extraction narratives on the Rai coast of Papua New Guinea

STENGS, IRENE: The commodification of King Chulalongkorn: His portraits, their cultural biographies, and the enduring aura of a Great King of Siam

BINSBERGEN, WIM M.J. VAN: “We are in this for the money”: Commodification and the sangoma cult of Southern Africa

 

 

 

BRÄUCHLER, BIRGIT & THOMAS WIDLOK

Die Revitalisierung von Tradition: Im (Ver-)Handlungsfeld zwischen staatlichem und lokalem Recht

Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 132.2007:5-14

Keywords: revitalization of tradition, identity, power, customary law, state, globalization

 

##The revitalisation of tradition: Agency and negotiations between state law and local law

The current process of increasing globalisation, transnationalism and a seeming homogenisation is accompanied by a worldwide trend towards the revitalisation of local traditions, structures, meanings and values, especially in the field of so-called traditional or customary law. This essay introduces the contributions of the special issue The revitalisation of tradition that strives to trace and analyse such processes. The articles are based on anthropological research conducted in different continents and show that revitalisation of traditions should not be confused with a return to the past. To the contrary, it often involves explicitly future-oriented strategies albeit not always in line with "western" ideals of democracy, human rights and emancipation, but rather with local discourses of identity, decision-making and equality. The ethnographic studies demonstrate how power games and negotiations benveen local, state and international agents shape such processes of revitalisation. They are not concerned with determining what "tradition" is or should be, but with the positioning of diverse agents, with the options, conflicts and limitations that these positions entail, and with exposing the changing power structures and "cultural realities" involved.##

 

 

 

BUSCH, DOMINIC

Interkulturelle Mediation. Eine theoretische Grundlegung triadischer Konfliktbearbeitung in interkulturell bedingten Kontexten. 2. Korrigierte Auflage

(Studien zur interkulturellen Mediation 1)

Frankfurt/M.: Lang Verlag 2007

390 pp., Euro 59.70; ISBN 3-631-56962-7

Keywords: intercultural mediation, mediation (development), triadic conflict management, conflict management

 

Intercultural mediation. A theoretical foundation of triadic conflict management in intercultural contexts. 2nd enlarged ed.

The author presents a discourse-analytic approach to research on interultural mediation and conflict management - which uncovers implicit goals of these areas. Deductive concepts of intercultural mediation - which are prevalent - are based on transferring mediation to the problematic area of intercultural communication and are hardly able to grasp and assess specifics of interulturally conditioned interaction. Thus, the author proposes a complementing inductive concept: He is searching for forms of a triadic promotion of communication, among which strategies of a “spontaneous lay mediation” seem promising.

 

 

 

 

 

CHERVEL, THIERRY & ANJA SEELIGER (Eds.)

Islam in Europa. Eine internationale Debatte

(Edition Suhrkamp 2531)

Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp Verlag 2007

217 pp., Euro 10,-; ISBN 3-518-12531-1

Keywords: Islam and Europe, freedom and Islam, political correctness, cultural freedom, intercultural freedom, fundamentalism, Enlightenment, modernity

 

Islam in Europe. An international debate

The twenty papers of this book are mostly by internationally known writers on this subject, like Ian Buruma, Timothy G. Ash, or Bassam Tibi - published before elsewhere. They discuss questions like the right to insult, the relation of freedom and state rulings, the dogmatism of the Enlightenment, classical authors on this type of freedom (like Voltaire and Lessing), the right of being different, Euro-Islam as a bridge between Islam and Europe.

 

 

 

CORAY-DAPRETTO, LORENZA (Ed.)

Global heritage: tradition and innovation. Africa and South Asia in perspective

(Topics in African studies 5)

Köln: Köppe Verlag 2007

136 pp., photographs, Euro 28,-; ISBN 3-89645-249-8

Keywords: tradition, innovation, globalization, Igbo cosmology, modernity, Indian women, women in India, bourgeois revolution, Bollywood, individualism, Dalits, untouchability, diasporic cinema, cinema and diaspora, Chi, development

 

## The question the participants proposed to address was: "Are traditional heritage and advanced technological innovations incompatible in the age of globalisation?” One of the primal interests of such a debate was its multidisciplinary approach, as some of the speakers were social scientists and others specialists of literature, all concurring to examine the multi-faceted aspect of this very contemporary issue. Another leading interest is the vital need and purport for our common future to understand the apparently dialectical relation between these very specific strands of the somewhat more banal opposition between tradition and modernity in our twenty-first century world so often defined, for better or for worse, as globalized. The methodological variety with which the question was addressed originated not only from the participants' different fields of expertise but was also due to their personal approach to the geographical and cultural areas under their scrutiny and their viewpoint, oscillating between the detailed and descriptive to the analytical, theoretical and philosophical.##

PASSOS, JOANA: Schizophrenic conditions, difficult transitions

JAGTIANI-NAUMANN, LALITA: Tradition and modernity: intertwining strands in Indian women's consciousness

CORAY-DAPRETTO, LORENZA: Dalits and untouchability in connec-tion with the contemporary Indian bourgeois revolution

SASIC, BORISLAVA: Engaging/ challenging the notion development

TSHIALA, LAY: Owning a house back home: Western individualism or sense of community among Congolese immigrants living abroad?

ANAND, BEENA: Tradition and modernity in Indian mainstream and diasporic cinema today

SOOD, SUJAY: Modo-culture and the vitalizing complex: Bollywood films and globalization

NAUMANN, MICHEL: From Achebe's Chi in Igbo cosmology to Chi in globalization

 

 

 

DELLWING, MICHAEL

Die entprivatisierte Religion. Religionszugehörigkeit jenseits der Wahl?

Wiesbaden: Deutscher Universitätsverlag 2007

188 pp., Euro 29.90; ISBN 3-8350-6067-8

Keywords: affiliation (religion), religious affiliation, choice of religion, privatized religion, Protestantism, public religion, individual choice of religion, sociology of religion

 

De-privatized religion. Religious affiliation beyond choice?

Focusing on the individual choice of religious affiliation is in line with an era which stresses individual responsibility, autonomy, and free choice. But religion is a phenomenon that withdraws from individual choice because - according to Augustine - that one can believe only that which is credible, plausible. And plausibility emerges from a network of historically-discoursive generated self-evidence, that is, beyond individual decision. The author deals with the vitality of religion and phenomena which are explained by the sociology of religion, namely conversion, religious participation, and the public influence of religion. He shows the penetration of the sociology of religion by the paradigm of individual choice and how the idea of a communal religion in which the individual paradigm too resonates, and finally presents a view of how religion can be seen as being beyond personal choice. The chapters deal with “privatized religion of choice”, the Protestant narrative of being forced to be heretic, a discoursive-cognitive definition of religion, public religion, and religion beyond choice.

 

 

 

DEMMER, ULRICH & MARTIN GAENSZLE (Eds.)

The power of discourse in ritual performance. Rhetoric, poetics, transfor-mations

(Performanzen 10)

Berlin: Lit Verlag 2007

207 pp., Euro 24.90; ISBN 3-8258-8300-3

Keywords: discourse and power, ritual performance, performance theory, poetics and ritual, healing rituals, rhetoric, spirits, Umbanda, Mewahang, texts and ritual, wayang kulit, Alekh rituals, Cashinahua poetics

 

This book is in part the result of a panel at the 2000 EASA biannual conference  at Krakow, Poland.

##This volume focusses on the ways discourse is used in ritual performances as an important medium of power, enabling speakers/actors to construct, redefine and transform interpersonal relationships, cultural concepts and worldviews. The various case studies gathered here, from South Asia, South East Asia, Africa and South America, show that recent developments in linguistic anthropology, ritual theory and performance studies provide new conceptual tools to take a fresh look at these issues. Foregrounding pragmatic approaches to language and discourse, they explore the social dynamics of rhetorical discourse, text and context, normativity and creativity, the poetics of dialogue and speech, as well as the manifold interactions of speakers, addressees and audience. The volume thus embraces both the micro-level of speech activities as well as the macro-level of social and political relationships and brings out the subtle workings of control, authority, and power in situations marked as ritual. The contributions, all based on extensive fieldwork, include many concrete samples of speech and discourse which give an authentic impression of the different voices and make for vivid reading.##

DEMMER, ULRICH: The power of rhetoric: Dialogue and dynamic persuation in healing rituals of a South Indian community

LARSEN, KJERSTI: Dialogues between humans and spirits: Ways of negotiating relationships and moral order in Zanzibar Town, Zanzibar

MEYER, CHRISTIAN: “Dust is dust.” Rhetorical and interactionsl strategies of conflict management in Brazilian Umbanda religion

GAENSZLE, MARTIN: The power of texts: Uses of contextualization and entextualization in Mewahang ritual speech

HORNBACHER, ANNETTE: Sounding the word: Prosody and poetics in wayang kulit reflected by western and Balinese concepts of language

GUZY, LIDIA: The power of ecstatic song: Poetic language in Alekh vocal rituals

LAGROU, ELS: Cashinahua poetics: Metaphors of sociality and personhood in ritual song

 

 

 

ENGELBRECHT, BEATE (Ed.)

Memories of the origins of ethnographic film

(Menschen - Wissen - Medien 1)

Frankfurt/M.: Lang Verlag 2007

504 pp., Euro 59,-; ISBN 3-631-50735-3

Keywords: film, ethnographic film, visual anthropology, Rouch, J., Heusch, L. de, Mead, M., Marshall, J., Bushmen, Leacock, R., Flaherty, R., Young, C., Gardner, R., Stoney, G., Carpenter, E., Dunlop, E.

 

##Ethnographic Film, which combines documentary filming and anthropological research, originated in the late 19th century. Early on, anthropologists used film to record cultures. Documentary filmmakers in the early 20th century developed different strategies, with technical developments aiding further advances. In the 1950s to 1970s, intense debates among anthropologists, filmmakers and artists, many of whom met regularly at conferences and festivals, took place on the methodology of ethnographic filmmaking. Their discussions were handed on by word of mouth, but rarely recorded or published. In 2001, the pioneers of ethnographic film met in Göttingen and put together their recollections of the genre's Origins, thus giving an unusual insight into the development of ethnographic film.##

HOCKINGS, PAUL: The Early Years of Visual Anthropology

HEUSCH, LUC DE: The Prehistory of Ethnographic Film

LEACOCK, RICHARD: Robert Flaherty as I Knew Him

DECKER, CHRISTOF: Richard Leacock and the Origins of Direct Cinema: Re-assessing the Idea of an 'Uncontrolled Cinema'

WINSTON, BRIAN: Grierson Versus Ethnographic Film

SULLIVAN, GERALD: Recording Social Interaction: Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson's Contribution to Visual Anthropology in Ethnographic Context

ASCH, PATSY: From Bushmen to Ju/'Hoansi: A Personal Reflection on the Early Films of John Marshall

BISHOP, JOHN: Life By Myth: The Development of Ethnographic Filming in the Work of John Marshall

ELDER, SARAH: Pulling Focus: Timothy Asch Between Filmmaking and Pedagogy

MACDOUGALL, DAVID: Colin Young, Ethnographic Film and the Film Culture of the 1960s

MACDOUGALL, JUDITH: Colin Young and Running Around With a Camera

HENLEY, PAUL: The Origins of Observational Cinema: Conversations with Colin Young

CHALFEN, RICHARD: The Worth/Adair Navajo Experiment. Unanticipated Results and Reactions

BIELLA, PETER: The Legacy of John Collier, Jr.

HENAUT, DOROTHY TODD: George Stoney: The Johnny Appelseed of Documentary

PRINS, HARALD & JOHN BISHOP: "Let Me Tell You A Story": Edmund Carpenter as Forerunner in the Anthropology of Visual Media

HOCKINGS, PAUL: Asen Balikci Films Nanook

HEIDER, KARL G.: Robert Gardncr: The Early Years

ÖSTÖR, AKOS: Robert Gardner's Ambivalent Anthropological Film-making

SHERMAN, SHARON R.: From Romanticism to Reflexivity in the Films of Jorge Preloran

BRYSON, IAN: Visual Anthropology: The AIATSIS Contribution

COHEN, HART: Early Ethnographic Film and Documentary: Points of Contact

MORPHY, HOWARD: The Aesthetics of Communication and the Communication of Cultural Aesthetics: A Perspective on Ian Dunlop's Films of Aboriginal Australia

PIAULT, COLETTE: Festivals, Conferences, Seminars and Networks in Visual Anthropology in Europe

PIAULT, MARC HENRY: The "cine-transe" and the Reign of the Subject: Jean Rouch

KÜHNE, JOELLE: Luc de Heusch: Science of Art and Art of Science

HUSMANN, ROLF: Post-War Ethnographic Filmmaking in Germany: Peter Fuchs, the IWF and the Encyclopaedia Cinematographica

KRIZNAR, NASKO: Meeting Visual Anthropology in Transit Countries Slovenian case

TARI, JANOS: Making Ethnographic Films - Experiences from East Europe

 

 

 

FÄRBER, ALEXA

Weltausstellung als Wissensmodus. Ethnographie einer Repräsentations-arbeit

(Forum Europäische Ethnologie 5)

Berlin: Lit Verlag 2006

336 pp., Euro 24.90; ISBN 3-8258-8139-3

Keywords: knowledge production, late modernity, exhibitions and knowledge, ethnography of exhibitions

 

World exhibition as mode of knowledge. Ethnography of a representation

The auhor opines that knowledge has become problematic in Late Modernity and asks whether its modi production are different because of this. This is exemplified in the case of the Expo 2000 at Hannover, Germany, which is ethnographically “examined”. More specifically, the study focuses on the Moroccan national pavilion and the work of the BBM group of artists in the theme park exhibition “Knowledge - information - communication”. It is shown how in the context of the world exhibition knowledge is produced as a resource, as model, and as (or in) transfer, and what its effects are. Färber also asks how ethnographic knowledge production is positioned in this institutional environment, and in this respect the study interrelates three fields of representational work: politics, art, and scholarship.

 

 

 

FORST, RAINER

Das Recht auf Rechtfertigung. Elemente einer konstruktivistischen Theorie der Gerechtigkeit

(Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft 1762)

Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp Verlag 2007

413 pp., Euro 14,-; ISBN 3-51829362-1

Keywords: justice, theory of justice, subjugation, norms, social norms, transnational justice, human rights, Kant, I., Rawls, J., morality

 

The right to justification. Elements of a constructionist theory of justice

According to Forst, there is one single normative basic statement underlying his theory of political and social justice - the right not to be subjugated under norms or societal conditions that cannot be justified adequately. In the book he lays the foundations in: practical reason, morality, and justice. The author differentiates and discusses practical reason, morality, and justice (the foundation of morality, normativity according to Kant, John Rawls” political liberalism, Habermas” discourse theory); then political and social justice political freedom, tolerance and democracy, the governance of reasons, justification of power), and finally human rights and transnational justice (the basic right to justification, constructions of transnational justice in Rawls and Otfried Höffe, foundations of a discourse theory of transnational justice, and first steps toward a critical theory of transnational justice).

 

 

 

FRANK, MICHAEL C.

Kulturelle Einflussangst. Inszenierungen der Grenze in der Reiseliteratur des 19. Jahrhunderts

Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag 2006

228 pp., Euro 25.80; ISBN 3-89942-535-9

Keywords: travel literature, borders, fear of borders, archaeology of borders, identity, crossing borders, cultural borders, acculturation, Melville, H., Haggard, H.R., Conrad, J., space and border, trespassing borders, going native

 

The cultural fear of influence. Stage-setting of the border in 19th century travel literature

Colonial travel literature has created - besides representations of the Other of Europe - the foreign image of the de-Europeanized European. This type sheds light on a hitherto rarely described phenomenon that can be termed as the “cultural fear of influence”. Especially in the 19th century one can detect a thorough preoccupation with possible effects of acculturation, “racial mixing” and climatic influence on white travelers and colonialists in tropical regions. Literary texts “perform” colonial space as a field of intercultural contact which has a clear demarcation - which is not to be trespassed, it is taboo to do so. The chapters discuss “collective identity”, imaginary geography, distancing from the Other through spatial and time demarcations, the discovery of Europe by experiencing contrasts, demarcation aspects in Foucault and Said, etc. The literary cases analyzed are: Herman Melville”s Typee; H. Rider Haggard”s King Solomon”s Mines; and Joseph Conrad”s Heart of Darkness.

 

 

 

GADNER, JOHANNES

Jede Gesellschaft produziert die Neurose, die zu ihr passt. Zur Bedeutung kultureller Wissenssysteme für die Entstehung und Heilung von Krank-heiten

Curare 30.2007:59-68

Keywords: knowledge systems, transcultural psychiatry, psychotherapy, psychosomatic interpretation, neuroses, Jivaro, illness concepts, transcultural psychiatry

 

##Every society produces the neuroses it deserves. On the meaning of cultural knowledge systems for developing and curing illnesses

The aim of this paper is to describe social and cultural influences on the genesis of illnesses and their respective therapies. In particular. the crucial role of social knowledge systems (Weltbilder) on the concepts of illnes and therapy is analysed. It will be shown how specifically psychological disorders and their treatments are embedded within a specific cultural context. Consequently, the concept of illnes as well as the characteristics of a specific symptom are socially and culturally defined. The ethnographic example of the Jivaro, an indigenous people living in the tropical forest of Ecuador, will be employed to describe how the concept of illness can be interpreted as a cultural system. This knowledge is crucial for the understanding of psychological disorders and constitutive for the methods of treatment in transcultural psychiatry and psychotherapy, whose concepts could be further developed on the basis of research in medical anthropology and ethnomedicine.##

 

 

 

GRÄSER, VALERIE et al.

Ethnologisches Symposium der Studierenden: Ritualizing a revival

Cargo 27.2007:38-40

Keywords: anthropology students, symposia (student), students” meetings

 

Anthropological symposium of students. Ritualizing a revival

After a latency period this student symposium has been taken up again and was held at Tübingen (2004). The second meeting took place at Halle, the third at Münster, and the fourth symposium is planned, the authors write. They describe and discuss the contents of the meetings.

 

 

 

GRESCH-BRUDER, RAMONA

100 Jahre für Gesundheit in der Einen Welt. Zum Jubiläum des DIFÄM in Tübingen

Curare 30.2007:6-14

Keywords: medical anthropology, prevention, DIFAEM

 

##The 100 Years' Birthday of DIFÄM, Germany

The new World Health Report says that in 2006 almost 11 million children under the age of five will die from causes that are largely preventable. Missing or too expensive medicines, lack of qualified personnel and appropriate infrastructure, administrative barriers - these are only some factors which hinder a substantial global change of these shortcomings until today. Advocacy for disadvantaged people - locally and worldwide - is the main objective of DIFAEM, the German Institute für Medical Mission in Tuebingen. To achieve health, to cure or to relieve illness, to help people with serious disease or disability, that is what the DIFAEM-staff is working in order to achieve the goal of Alma Ata (1978) “an acceptable level of health for all people of the world". In 2006 DIFAEM was celebrating its centennial. From the beginning of the "Medical Mission" in Germany via the concepts of "Primary Health Care" to the recent comprehension of "Public Health" it has been a long way. Today healthcare also includes the combat against poverty and unequal economic structures, to struggle for gender-equality and special attention to the effects of the AIDS epidemic. The basic aim is the protection of Human Rights, especially Article 25 (I) "Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services..." DIFAEM meets the challenge of healthcare by the provision of consultancies to health care programmes, an active involvement in health promotion and health care, by training of medical personnel for their stay in tropical countries. its pharmaceutical department which provides drugs and medical equipment and by raising the awareness for the underprivileged in this world by the means of public relations media.##

 

 

 

HAARMANN, HARALD

Foundations of culture. Knowledge-construction, belief systems and worldview in their dynamic interplay

Frankfurt/M.: Lang Verlag 2007

311 pp., Euro 39.80; ISBN 3-31-56685-5

Keywords: knowledge construction, belief systems, worldviews, memory (cultural), symbol-making, sustainability

 

##Constructing culture means constructing knowledge and making it operational for the benefit of sustained community life. As a cognitive process, knowledge construction does not evolve in a vacuum but rather interacts with belief systems and worldview. Cultural knowledge is modulated by key factors such as time (linear versus non-linear), conceptions of reality (physical, imagined, virtual), identity, and intentionality. The critical investigation and comparison of cultures in space and time call for a revision of several concepts. These include utility (as the maxim of modern Euro-American society), prototype (as an allegedly unified concept of culture evolution), and replacement (as a generalizing signifier for the exchange of old items for new ones).

The working of cultural memory is understood as the storage capacity of items of knowledge (relating to the past, present and future) according to parameters of experienced rather than absolute time. This study discusses a wide selection of the variables shaping the foundations and fabric of culture, starting with the human capacities for symbol-making and using sign systems. The impact of knowledge-construction on the culture process is articulated in 30 postulates concerning the dynamics of communal life and patterns of sustenance, the relationship between the natural environ-ment and cultural space, and the life cycle of cultures.## Chapters of the book discuss 1. Arbiters of culture (time, reality, consciousness, identity); 2. The significance of symbol-making; 3. Knowledge construction in the world of cultural diversity; 4. Contrasting cultures: quandaries and pitfalls; 5. And the impact of knowledge-construction on the culture process: 30 postulates on the dynamics of sustainability and change.

 

 

 

HARDENBERG, ROLAND

Das “einschließende Haus”. Wertehierarchie und das Konzept der "Haus-gesellschaft" im interkulturellen Vergleich

Anthropos 102.2007:157-168

Keywords: kinship, Lévi-Strauss, C., structuralism, value hierarchy, hierarchy of values

The “encompassing house”. Value hierarchy and the concept of the “house society” in intercultural comparison

##This paper deals with the debate about house societies which in recent years has contributed to a renewed interest in kinship studies. The debate has brought together authors with very different anthropological approaches who nevertheless often agree in their definition of house societies as corporate groups. It is here argued that a better understanding of the role of the house is gained when seeing it as an expression of ideas and values attached to social relations. The paper provides an overview and a critique of the different approaches to "house societies" which developed since the pioneering work of Lévi-Strauss in 1979. It is argued that the concept of "house societies" should be abandoned and substituted by the concept of the "encompassing house." An "encompassing house" repre-sents the sociocosmic whole and the hierarchical system of ideas and values in certain societies. Comparative studies of such "encompassing houses" may enhance our understanding of societies as wholes.##

 

 

 

HARDERS, GERD

Der gerade Kreis - Nietzsche und die Geschichte der ewigen Wiederkehr. Eine wissenssoziologische Untersuchung zu zyklischen Zeitvorstellungen

(Soziologische Schriften 80)

Berlin: Duncker & Humblot 2007

511 pp., Euro 78,-; ISBN 3-428-12499-2

Keywords: time concepts, conceptions of time, cyclical time, Nietzsche, F., sociology of knowledge, evolutionism, dreamtime, philosophy and time

 

The straight circle - Nietzsche and the history of eternal return. An inquiry in the sociology of knowledge on cyclical apprehensions of time

Starting from the Nietzschean phrase of the eternal return of the same the author scans the totality of recorded history for time conceptions and reconstructs them. The study is connected with the historical research orientation of “societal structure and semantics” and unfolds, based on the material, differences and commonalities in thinking time from the earliest societies to the present. Besides differences, mainly the unity of the semantic development of time conceptions and their coupling, or joining, to societal structures becomes visible. Regarding Nietzsche”s image this means that, diverging from the common interpretation in the reception of Nietzsche, an integration of his position in the evolutionary development of occidental semantics of time is possible.  The first chapters discusses time in other cultures (Egypt, Zoroastrianism,  dreamtime (Aborigines), Sudan, Babylon, ancient Germany, India, China, Mesopotamia, Hethites, Israel/Judaea, and in Isaiah. Then (“individualistic”) time in old Greek philosophers/scholars is discussed and the third chapter deals with shifts in the focus on time, likewise in ancient Greek philosophers, and biblical texts. Chapter 4 starts from the late (European) Middle Ages up to Kant, and chapter 5 discusses time conceptions in Schelling, Hegel, Marx and Engels, evolutionary theory, Carnot, Mayer, Clausius, Boltzmann, Poincaré, and Vogt, showing changes in time concepts in philosophy, natural sciences, and technology. Then comes chapter 6 discussing Nietzsche”s approach, and the book ends with 20th century thinkers, such as Simmel, Heidegger, Luc‚Ä°cs, Einstein, Planck, Heisenberg, Bohr, Hawking, Prigogine, Esposito, and Luhmann.

 

 

 

HARTMANN, JUTTA et al. (Eds.)

Heteronormativität. Empirische Studien zu Geschlecht, Sexualität und Macht

(Studien interdisziplinäre Geschlechterforschung 10)

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2007

312 pp., Euro 29.90; ISBN 3-531-14611-9

Keywords: heteronormativity, gender, sexuality, power, lesbianism, adolescent, performance of gender, desire and gender, homosexuals, migration, intimate relationships, civil rights

 

Heteronormativity. Empirical studies in gender, sexuality, and power

Authors from various fields (sociology, education, anthropology, biology, public health etc.) discuss this field in 19 papers: on terminology and notions, heteronormativity in discourses (lesbianism, constructions of critical educational theory, zoology, bisexuality), then subjective negotiations of gender and longing (adolescent girls between homo- and heterosexual desires and fantasies, adolescent boys growing into the “heterosexual order”, doing gender among social workers), then the cultural practice of “performing” gender and desires (pride parades of homosexuals, non-heterosexual behavior in TV documentaries), and finally a section on intersectioning and simultaneously existing multiple power situations (transnational migration, intimate relationships and civil rights, female bisexual non-monogamy).

 

 

HARTUNG, HEIKE et al. (Eds.)

Graue Theorie. Die Kategorien Alter und Geschlecht im kulturellen Diskurs

Köln: Böhlau Verlag 2007

296 pp., Euro 29.90; ISBN 3-412-03706-2

Keywords: age and gender, gender and age, discourse on age, discourse on gender, cultural discourse on age, theory of ageing, life course, intergenerational discourse on age, menopause, women and age, age-discrimination, discrimination of aged, equal opportunity

 

Mere theory. The categories of age and gender in cultural discourse

The papers of this book originated in a workshop of a post-doc project on “age, gender, society” at the University of Greifswald in 2005; they contribute to present gerontological theory, aiming to bridge the gap (particularly in Germany) between theory and cultural discourse.

GERSTENBERG, ANNETTE: Generation und “Sprachprofile”. Unter-suchung zum höheren Lebensalter auf Basis biographischer Interviews [Generation and “language profiles”. Research on higher age based on biographical interviews]

RETKOWSKI, ALEXANDRA: ,Alter' im intergenerationellen Interview Über Facetten eines Deutungsmusters [“Age” in inter-generational interviews. On facets of an interpretative pattern]

BAVAJ, RICCARDO: "68er" versus "45er". Anmerkungen zu einer "Generationsrevolte [The “68s” vs. The “45s”. Remarks on a “revolt of a generation”]

SPINDLER, MONE: Neue Konzepte für alte Körper. Ist Anti-Aging unnatürlich? [New concepts for old bodies. Is anti-ageing unnatural?]

MOLLER, SABINE LUCIA: Das Alter(n) der Königin. Körper- und Geschichtserzählungen über Mary und Elizabeth Tudor [The age(ing) of the queen. Body- and historical tales on Mary and Elizabeth Tudor]

WOLF, MEIKE: Ein bisschen wie ein Jungbrunnen? Die kulturelle Konstruktion der Menopause als Hormonmangelkrankheit [Somewhat like a fountain of youth. The cultural construction of menopause as a hormonal deficiency illness]

KEILHAUER, ANNETTE: Altern als mimetische Praxis im autobio-graphischen Schreiben von Frauen [Ageing as mimetic praxis in the autobiographical writings of women]

HEIKE HARTLNG: Alter zwischen Neid und Mitleid. Kulturelle Erzählungen vom Altern im sentimentalen Diskurs [Age between envy and pity. Cultural narratives of ageing in the sentimental discourse]

SEIDLER, MIRIAM: Zwischen Demenz und Freiheit. Überlegungen zum Verhältnis von Alter und Geschlecht in der Gegenwartsliteratur [Between dementia and freedom. Reflections on the relation of age and gender in contemporary literature]

PEINMUTH, DOROTHEA: Gleichbehandlung per Richtlinie? Geschlecht und Alter in den Nichtdiskriminierungsrichtlinien der Europäischen Union [Equal treatment through law? Gender and age in the anti-discrimination rules of the European Union]

STREUBEL, CHRISTIANE: Wir sind die geschädigte Generation. Lebensrückblicke von Rentnern in Eingaben an die Staatsführung der DDR [We are the impaired generation. Retrospects on their lives by retired persons in letters to the GDR government]

RICHTER, SUSAN: Fürstliche Testamente als Medium intergenera-tioneller Beziehungen [Generous last wills as a medium of inter-generational relations]

 

 

 

HARVEY, DAVID

Kleine Geschichte des Neoliberalismus. Aus dem Englischen von Niels Kadritzke

Zürich: Rotpunktverlag 2007

279 pp., Euro 24,-; ISBN 3-85869-343-3

Keywords: neoliberalism, economic dominance, dominance of neoliberalism, ideology of economics, globalization, capitalism

 

A brief history of neoliberalism. Translated by Niels Kadritzke

This anthropologial assessment of neoliberalism analyzes its rise to dominance since the late 1970s when several influential actors (Thatcher, Reagan, Deng Xiao-ping, Pinochet...), based on economic theory (or belief) effected its breakthrough. Harvey aims to show means and ways by which a new economic combination or line-up - called globalization - was developed out of the old one. The whole ideology is based on the belief, or presupposition, that the wealth of people is optimally promoted by “free” markets and trade, and that everything should be ruled by this principle, whether it is water, education, health care, social security; the only task of the state being the protection of this principle and actions. This ideology also aims at spreading these conditions everywhere, not only within the limits of the respective nation state. So the book wants to answer the question of where the neoliberal dynamic comes from and how it was able to conquer the whole world. By critically doing this a framework emerges for the task of developing and implementing alternative political and economic concepts.

 

 

 

HEMME, DOROTHEE, MARKUS TAUSCHEK & REGINA BENDIX (Eds.)

Prädikat “HERITAGE”. Wertschöpfungen aus kulturellen Ressourcen

(Studien zur Kulturanthropologie/Europäischen Ethnologie 1)

Berlin: Lit Verlag 2007

367 pp., Euro 29.90; ISBN 3-8258-9892-2

Keywords: heritage and culture, UNESCO, cultural heritage, folklore, traditional knowledge, cultural property, world heritage, Grimm Brothers, memory, collective memory, food and cultural heritage

 

The “heritage” predicate. Utilizing cultural resources

The papers in this book analyze the trendy “late-modern” category of cultural heritage from an ethnographic and historical perspective - it includes case studies from the Baltic to Mexico, describing the genesis of the notion and its present appearance.

TSCHOFEN, BERNHARD: Antreten, ablehnen, verwalten? Was der Heritage-Boom den Kulturwissenschaften aufträgt [What the heritage boom means for the cultural sciences]

NOYES, DOROTHY: Voice in the Provinces: Submission, Recognition, and the Making of Heritage

SWENSON, ASTRID: “Heritage, “Patrimoine” und “Kulturerbe”: Eine vergleichende historische Semantik [Heritage, patrimoine, and cultural heritage: A comparative historical semantics]

HAFSTEIN, VALDIMAR TR.: Claiming Culture: Intangible Heritage Inc., Folklore©, Traditional Knowledge™

STRASSER, PETER: Welt-Erbe? Thesen über das “Flaggschiffprogramm” der UNESCO [World heritage? Arguments around the “flagship program” of the UNESCO]

WEIGELT, FRANK: Von “Cultural Properry” zu “Cultural Heritage”. Die UNESCO-Konzeptionen im Wandel der Zeit [From “Cultural Properry” to “Cultural Heritage”. Changing UNESCO conceptions]

MEYER-RATH, ANNE: Zeit-nah, Welt-fern? Paradoxien in der Prädikatisierung von immateriellem Kulturerbe [Paradoxies in predicating immaterial cultural heritage]

KUUTMA, KRISTIN: The Politics of Contested Representation: UNESCO and the masterpieces of intangible cultural heritage

TAUSCHEK, MARKUS: “Plus oultre" - Welterbe und kein Ende? Zum Beispiel Binche [Endless world heritage? Binche, for example]

HEMME, DOROTHEE: “Weltmarke Grimm” - Anmerkungen zum Umgang mit der Ernennung der Grimmschen Kinder- und Hausmärchen zum “Memory of the world” [“World trade mark Grimm” - Remarks on how to deal with the nomination of the Grimm Fairy Tales as “Memory of the world”]

KOLLEWE, CAROLIN: Wie “böse Steine” zu “wertvollen Stücken” werden - Produktion kulturellen Erbes und Konstruktion lokaler Identität während des Aufbaus eines Gemeindemuseums in Südmexiko [The production of cultural heritage and the construction of local identity during the construction of a community museum in Southern Mexico]

BENOVSKA-SABKOVA, MILENA: Monuments, collective memory, social imagination and local identity in Bulgaria on the borderline between two centuries

FRANK, SYBILLE: Grenzwerte - Zur Formation der “Heritage Industry” am Berliner Checkpoint Charlie [On the formation of the “heritage industry” at the Berlin Checkpoint Charlie]

WELZ, GISELA: Europäische Produkte: Nahrungskulturelles Erbe und EU-Politik. Am Beispiel der Republik Zypern [European products: Food-cultural heritage and EU politics - the case of the Republic of Cyprus]

BENDIX, REGINA: Kulturelles Erbe zwischen Wirtschaft und Politik. Ein Ausblick [Cultural heritage between economics and politics]

 

 

 

HIRSCHFELD, BENJAMIN

Das “Moving anthropology student network” - Oder der Blick über den eigenen Tellerrand

Cargo 27.2007:35-37

Keywords: student network, anthropology students

 

The “ Moving anthropology student network” - Or, the gaze beyond the immediate vicinity

Hirschfeld reports on the foundation (in 2005) of the “Moving anthropology student network” (www.movinganthropology.org), a student network founded by some Austrian students, featuring (actual) meetings and exchange across Europe and beyond, and a virtual platform (see above). The article describes contents of the first two meetings, in Austria, and Croatia.

 

HUG, BRIGITTA

Babyjahre anderswo. Theorie und transkultureller Vergleich der frühen Kindheiten bei den Gusii, den !Kung San und den Iatmul

(Studien zur Ethnopsychologie und Ethnopsychoanalyse 8)

Wien: Lit Verlag 2007

272 pp., Euro 24.90; ISBN 3-8258-0127-4

Keywords: child rearing, Gusii, !Kung San, Iatmul, childhood, comparative childhood, ethnopsychoanalysis, psychology and anthropology

 

Baby years elsewhere. Theory and transcultural comparison of early childhood among the Gusii, the !Kung San and the Iatmul

According to Hug - an anthropologist and psychoanalyst - the first periods in life are socially organized: It is, according to her, a fascinating and work-intensive period, and this work is done by mothers, in nuclear families, or other settings - depending on the respective culture. Depending on political or economic conditions infants are treated variously, and specific characteristics and needs are attributed to them. Hug compares transculturally early childhood of the Gusii, the !Kung San, and the Iatmül, and simultaneously she analyzes western thinking about babies. First, the history of research in psychology and anthropology on this topic is presented in detail. The author has chosen three rather different ethnic groups in order to be able to show differences in social organization and related economic and political strategies (p.59). In her theoretical model for transcultural comparison of social organization during the first years of life Hug assumes: 1. an exclusive mother-child dyad as the basis for the development and ability for relationships and a coherent self; 2. A self that is clearly separated from the outer environment; 3. Feedback between adult behavior and early childhood conditions of socialization; 4. That ambivalence, aggression and violence towards infants are not part of motherliness. The conclusion of her textual analysis of material on the three ethnic groups relates to questions of power, symmetry, etc., although she states the difficulty of arriving at safe data or statements on the basis of textual analysis. In the end Hug has several recommendations for future field research.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

JANZING, GEREON

Eine Reise in die Wirklichkeit

Cargo 27.2007:27-30

Keywords: travelogue, stereotypes of alterity, alterity

A journey to reality

This essayistic travelogue is an exercise of training, or searching one”s consciousness - regarding notions, values, and stereotypes of alterity, especially notions like “heathens”, “developing countries”, or “stone age peoples”. Janzing does so by searching his own reactions of exposure to various cultures.

 

 

 

JENSEN, JÜRGEN

Ethnographische Datenerfassung, Dokumentation und Beschreibung  bei Pietro Della Valle (1586-1652)

Anthropos 102.2007:421-439

Keywords: travelogues, travellers, ethnography, fieldwork

 

Ethnographic data collection, documentation, and description in Pietro Della Valle (1586-1652)

##Many important elements for the development of cultural/social anthropology had already been present bevore the Enlightenment, between the l5th and the beginning of the l8th century. The Italian traveller Pietro Dclla Valle, who visited many Oriental countries and parts of India in the years 1614-1626, published the then most voluminous and sophisticated travel reports of the time. Besides other material, it contains a vast amount of ethnographic data. The argument of this article is that Della Valle already developed and applied explicitly the main principles of ethnographic fieldwork, evaluated critically his data, and provided detailed information about his sources.##

 

 

 

JERRENTRUP, MAJA TABEA

Schwarze Kinderaugen und weiße Westen. Darstellungen in der Plakatwerbung für wohltätige Zwecke

Cargo 27.2007:8-14

Keywords: advertisement for welfare, welfare advertisement, posters and advertisement

 

Black children”s eyes and clean slates. Representations in poster advertisements for welfare purposes

In this article several posters - each of which stands for a certain category of posters - are presented and analyzed regarding effects of the motifs of these posters. Since advertisement - in the present case for welfare purposes - has a goal or aim, the reception, that is reactions by looking at them and resulting motivations, are of special importance. Even unintended “side effects” are relevant. So, Jerrentrup identifies “typical” motifs for this subject, and ends with advice for meaningful, “good” procedure in this area of advertisement.

 

 

 

KÄMPF, HEIKE

Der Sinn fürs Scheitern. Ethnologische Bekenntnisliteratur zwischen Selbsterforschung und Selbstverlust

Paideuma 51.2005:133-151

Keywords: anthropologists, writing culture, reflexivity, self-reflexivity, research and reflexivity

 

The sense for failure/defeat. Anthropological confessional texts between self-searching and self-loss

Kämpf reviews some of these texts which became prevalent since the 1980s, stating Geertz's only ironical referral to them, and Roland Barthes' remark of their futility. In the same vein she discusses the writing of diaries as a kind of private soul-searching. Kämpf then discusses the specific relation of this kind of analysis for anthropological research, and as an effect of scholarly reasoning aiming at 'subjectivation' (p.135). For this, she goes back as far as Rousseau, to unearth the processes.

 

 

 

KOCH, GERTRAUD & BERND JÜRGEN WARNEKEN (Eds.)

Region - Kultur - Innovation. Wege in die Wissensgesellschaft

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2007

218 pp., Euro 29.90; ISBN 3-531-15285-1

Keywords: region, culture, innovation, knowledge generation, learning, IT learning, E-learning, transfer of knowledge

 

Region - culture - innovation. Approaches to knowledge society

The papers are based on a meeting in 2005 (Evangelische Akademie Arnoldshain), and the authors combine perspectives and approaches from economic science as well as ethnographic/cultural anthropological research on innovation.

FAßLER, MANFRED: Wissenserzeugung. Forschungsfragen zu Dimensionen intensiver Evolution [Knowledge generation. Research on dimensions of intensive evolution]

WELZ, GISELA: Lernkulturen regionaler Innovationsmilieus im IT-Sektor. Eine kulturanthropologische Perspektive [Learning cultures of regional innovation milieux in the IT sectors. A cultural anthropological perspective]

MATTHIESEN, ULF: Wissensmilieus in heterogenen stadtregionalen Räumen Ostdeutschlands - zwischen Innovationsressourcen und kulturellen Abschottungen [Knowledge milieux in heterogeneous urban regional areas of eastern Germany]

HOSER, NADINE & ANNELIES C. PEINER: E-Learning als Innovation: Analyse einer Popularisierungsstrategie zur Einführung von E-Learning in der Jordan Education Initiative [E-learning as innovation: Analysis of a strategy of popularization of introducing E-learning in the Jordan Education Initiative]

KOCH, GERTRAUD: Wissenstransfer zwischen Kulturen. Kulturana-lytische Anmerkungen zu einer unternehmerischen Herausforderung [Knowledge transfer between cultures. Culture-analytical notes on an entrepreneurial challenge]

PROFF, HEIKE: Kompetenzaufbau, Produktinnovation und der Einfluss von kultureller Vielfalt [Building competence. Product innovation and the influence of cultural diversity]

BEHRMANN, NIELS: Patente als Quelle von Innovationen [Patents as a source of innovation]

EISENKOPF, ALEXANDER: Wettbewerb und Innovation. Die Grenzen staatlicher Innovationspolitik [Competition and innovation. The limits of governmental innovation politics]

 

 

 

KONZOK, HENDRIK

“Die Auftrennung der Wirklichkeit” Daniel Dahm über Ethnologie, Transdisziplinarität, Grundeinkommen und plurale Ökonomie

Cargo 27.2007:45-48

Keywords: anthropology, transdisciplinarity, basic income, plural economy, critique of anthropology

Daniel Dahm on anthropology, transdisciplinarity, basic income, and plural economy

Daniel Dahm is fellow of the Natural History Museum, London, and teaches at the Imperial College, and is a former student of anthropology (and geography) at Cologne. Dahm deplores anthropology moving towards a scientistic almost natural-scientific model of theorizing which he considers “idiotic” considering the object and focus of the discipline, and there are more interesting statements regarding anthropology, usually not voiced officially (in journals etc.).

 

 

 

KRONEBERG, CLEMENS

Wertrationalität und das Modell der Frame-Selektion

Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 59.2007:215-239

Keywords: value rationality, Weber, M., theory of action, action theory, Frame Selection

 

##Value rationality and the model of frame selection

According to Max Weber, value-rational action is characterized by a Self-conscious elaboration of ultimate values and a consistently planned orientation to those values without regard for other consequences. This article reconstructs this type of social action within the Model of Frame Selection. This model proves to be able to incorporate Weber”s ideas of a “value reflection” and "value orientation" as special cases of a more general theory of action. Thereby, links are also established to works of other theorists such as Raymond Boudon or Jürgen Habermas. On this basis, it is further argued that the Model of Frame Selection is well suited to provide Weber's macro-sociological concepts of "value spheres" and "life orders" with an action-theoretic foundation. The article concludes with general remarks regarding the relationship between the Weberian research program and the approach of analytical sociology.##

 

 

 

KUBIK, GERHARD

Tabu. Erkundungen transkultureller Psychoanalyse in Afrika, Europa und anderen Kulturgebieten

(Studien zur Ethnopsychologie und Ethnopsychoanalyse 7)

Wien: Lit Verlag 2007

94 pp., Euro 19.90; ISBN 3-8258-9799-4

Keywords: taboo, Mbwela/Lucazi-language and taboos, Mpyemo and taboos, Mwikho, Wapangwa and taboos, ethnopsychoanalysis and taboos, psychology and taboos

 

Taboo. Explorations in transcultural psychoanalysis in Africa, Europe, and other culture areas

Since Freud, who was the first to explore taboos cross-culturally, much has been explored in this respect - in initiation rituals, in play, and in religions. By interiorizing taboos society helps the individual to cope with socially not accepted unconscious tendencies. Kubik presents an overview of present taboo research for the comprehension of depth psychology; it is founded on his long-term field research in the regions mentioned in the title. After defining the notions that are subject of the book Kubik deals with: - taboos in Mbwela/Lucazi-language culture (Eastern Angola); - among the Mpyemo (République Centrafricaine; - Mwikho among the Wapangwa (Tanzania and Nyasa); - taboos in the Chichewa/Cinyanja-language area; - taboos in Central Europe and in Islamic cultures.

 

 

 

LEISTLE, BERNHARD

Einige Bemerkungen zum Verstehen fremder Lebenswelten in der Ethnologie

Curare 30.2007:163-176

Keywords: understanding lifeworlds, epistemology, interculturality, lifeworlds, corporeality, dialogical process, Merleau-Ponty, M.

 

##Some notes on understanding other lifeworlds in social and cultural anthropology

This essay deals with the epistemological prerequisites of understanding the culturally “other" in anthropology. "Culture" is conceptualized as a dimension of the life-world as a paramount, taken-for-granted reality and thus cannot be confined to specific realms of experience. An analysis of the lifeworld concept in both Husserl and Schütz & Luckmann shows that both insist on the existence of a universal lifeworld. At the same time, however, their descriptions point in the direction of a radical cultural relativity of experience, which would seclude one's own and the other's lifeworlds from each other. The ensuing contradiction cannot be resolved by an approach which attempts to describe the differences between lifeworlds in terms of diverging cultural organizations of the human sensorium. From the point of view of Merleau-Ponty”s theory of corporeality, perception finally emerges as dialogical process, situated in a sphere between an embodied self and its surroundings. Therefore, ethnology can only build a basis for itself by becoming increasingly aware of the interculturality of the field in which an understanding of the culturally other is constituted.##

 

 

 

LEYTON, CRISTIAN ALVARADO

Intendierte Machtallianzen. Lévi-Strauss” Allianzbegriff und die Kritik "künstlicher” Verwandtschaft

Anthropos 102.2007:169-185

Keywords: Lévi-Strauss, C., structuralism, kinship, alliance, affinal relations, ritual kinship, mimetic kinship

 

Intended power alliances. Lévi-Strauss's notion of alliance and the critique of “artificial” kinship

##In alliance theory the concept of "artificial kinship," i.e., affinal relations, is central. Although vague on other "fictive" kinship forms like godparenthood, Lévi-Strauss's approach leads out of the quandary the anthropology of kinship was set in by Schneider's critique. Modifying the notion of alliance not only emancipates ritual and mimetic kinship from their traditional anthropological treatment, which triggered off Schneider's critique, but also enables us to see any kinship form as an alliance practice ultimately resting on converged individual power interests. Therefore, Lévi-Strauss's stress on the intended construction of kinship offers a significant perspective for critical social research.##

 

 

 

MAE, MICHIKO & BRITTA SAAL (Eds.)

Transkulturelle Genderforschung. Ein Studienbuch zum Verhältnis von Kultur und Geschlecht

(Geschlecht & Gesellschaft 9)

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2007

340 pp., Euro 26.90; ISBN 3-531-15168-7

Keywords: gender, transcultural gender, Kahlo, F., gender in Islam, human rights

 

Transcultural gender research. A reader to understand culture and gender

These papers are based on a teaching project organized by the universities of Bielefeld, Bochum, Hannover, Hagen, and a few others.

SAAL, BRITTA: Kultur in Bewegung: Zur Begrifflichkeit von Transkulturalität [On notions of transculturality]

MAE, MICHIKO: Auf dem Weg zu einer transkultureilen Gender-forschung [Towards a transcultural gender research]

KREITZ-SANDBERG, SUSANNE: Exkurs: Transkultureile Gender-forschung und interkulturelle Kompetenz. Strategien in der virtuellen Lehre aus der Perspektive von Studierenden [Transcultural gender research and intercultural competence. Strategies in virtual teaching from the perspective of students]

BORSO, VITTORIA & VERA ELISABETH GERLING: Von Malinche zu Frida Kahlo: Territorium und Gender am Beispiel Mexikos [From Malinche to Frida Kahlo: Territory and gender in the case of Mexico]

SCHÄFER-WÜNSCHE, ELISABETH & NICOLE SCHRÖDER: Gender - Race - Kultur in den U.S.A.: Grenzen und Verflechtungen [Gender - race - culture in the USA: delimitations and entanglements]

KRÖHNERT-OTHMAN, SUSANNE: Die symbolische Ordnung der Moderne, kulturelle Identität und Gender im arabisch-islamischen Raum [The symbolic order of modernity, cultural identity and gender in the Arabic-Islamic culture area]

SCHULZ, DOROTHEA: Gender-Entwürfe und islamische Erneuerungs-bewegungen im Kontext translokaler institutioneller Vernetzungen: Beispiele aus Afrika [Gender constructions and Islamic reform movements in the context of translocal institutional networks: Cases from Africa]

TIETZE, NIKOLA: Muslimische Religiosität als Prozess: Islamische Identitäten junger Männer in Deutschland und Frankreich [Muslim religiosity as process: Islamic identities of young men in Germany and France]

RITTER, MARTINA: Neue Männer - neue Frauen? Zur Entstehung transkultureller Deutungsräume im Privaten im postsowjetischen Russland [New men - new women?. Emergence of transcultural spaces of interpretation in the private realm in post-Soviet Russia]

PFAFF-CZARNECKA, JOANNA: Menschenrechte und kulturelle Positionierungen in asiatischen Frauennetzwerken: Zur Diffusion des Menschenrechtsdiskurses in der reflexiven Moderne [Human rights and cultural positions in Asian women”s networks: On the diffusion of the human rights discourse in reflexive modernity]

MAE, MICHIKO: Japan zwischen Asien und dem Westen: Transkulturelle Grenzüberschreitungen und der Weg zu einer machtfreien Genderge-staltung [Japan between Asia and the West: Transcultural border crossings and the way towards gender construction free from power]

 

 

 

MEYER, CHRISTIAN

Macht, Sprache, Öffentlichkeit. Metadiskursives Wissen als Hinweis auf die Konfiguration sozialer Räume bei den Wolof Nordwestsenegals

Sociologus 57.2007:177-206

Keywords: Wolof, social space, space, social distance, interaction

 

##Power, language and public space. Metadiscoursive knowledge as a key to understanding the configuration of social spaces among the Wolofs in Northwestern Senegal

The knowledge about required discursive behaviour in specific social situations (how one has to speak at what time to whom about what and when one has to be silent about what), can provide us with a lot of information about the cultural conceptualization of these situations. Drawing on Bourdieu's concept of social space and on the Lebensweltphilosophie claiming that human beings possess everyday knowledge that provides them with orientation in their every, day life, this article presents some social spaces (village council, compound, weekly market, administrative office, etc.) and concepts of the Wolof about the adequate behaviour within these spaces. This information is subsequently interpreted by means of two interactionist methods in regard to the variables hierarchy and social distance in order to come to a fuller understanding of the social configuration of the spaces, their political functions, and their controlling effects.##

 

 

 

MOEBIUS, STEPHAN

Gaben der Anerkennung. Integrationstheoretische Potenziale der Kultur-theorien nach Marcel Mauss

Sociologia Internationalis 45.2007:109-144

Keywords: Mauss, M., gift exchange, theory of exchange, exchange theory

 

Gifts of recognition. Theoretical potential for integration of culture theories after Marcel Mauss

##If one looks into the reception of Marcel Mauss' work in French cultural and
social theory since the publication of his 1925 Essai sur le don one can distinguish
between two poles of reception: an "anti-utilitarian" and a "structuralist-symbolic" one. Because each of these poles corresponds with a specific understanding
of social recognition and integration, the differentiation of the reception of
Mauss' thought leads to quite different interpretations of the implications for the
theory of integration that follow from the "total social phenomenon" of the gift.
This paper analyzes these cultural theories with regard to their implications for the theory of integration and recognition.##

 

 

 

OBERDIEK, ULRICH

Das Feld von Going native

Sociologia Internationalis 45.2007:201-228

Keywords: going native, esoteric going native, discovery, colonialism, New Age, orientalism, occidentalism, urban culture, rural culture, Aguirre, L. de, Conrad, J., Frazer, J., Herzog, W., exploitation, US wars

 

The field of Going native

##This is a general assessment and analysis of ways of “going native”, that is, the attempt or process to seemingly “becoming one” with a different culture, or at least the idea of diving deep into it. For reasons of clarity three kinds are distinguished: 1) Going native in the context of the “age of discoveries” and colonialism, i.e. voluntary and involuntary processes; 2) professional attempts at Going native in anthropology; and 3) New Age-, or esoteric Going native. In all cases these phenomena are described, analyzed and criticized, using certain (common) parameters connecting (or separating) and characterizing them, such as voluntariness vs. coercion, cognitive interest or aims, epistemological processes and problems involved. Critique includes especially the political (discovery, colonialism), epistemological (anthropological, and especially New age), and eonomic exploitative (colonialism, New Age) dimensions of Going native. The last section focuses on more general (“universal”) aspects of Going native: its exchange aspect, which is exemplified in the case of Orientalism/Occidentalism and urban vs. “rural” cultures (as in Buruma & Margalit, 2004). Finally, a danger, or “pathological” process in Going native is analyzed in recurring to the case of Lope de Aguirre (1560/61) and colonial events in 19th century Congo which were popularized in literature and films (Joseph Conrad, Werner Herzog, F.F. Coppola). The conclusion reflects on general epistemological questions regarding Going native and sees power (and therefore, hierarchy), the generation of knowledge and economic striving as the major driving forces behind it.##

 

 

 

 

OPPITZ, MICHAEL

Die Geschichte der verlorenen Schrift

Paideuma 52.2006:27-50

Keywords: script, literate cultures, oral cultures, myths of literacy

 

The story of lost scripturality

Starting from the traditional “great divide” idea of anthropology being the “study of oral cultures”, in opposition to literate cultures, Oppitz recounts stories of the disappearance of the script, or the emergence of an alphabet from a number of traditional literate peoples in Southeast and South Asia, including China.

 

 

 

REINHARD, WOLFGANG (Eds.)

Krumme Touren. Anthropologie kommunikativer Umwege

(Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für historische Anthropologie e.V. 10)

Wien: Böhlau Verlag 2007

460 pp., Euro 49,-; ISBN 3-205-77572-0

Keywords: detours in communication, lies and truth, truth and lies, values and lies, crooked speech, Mosi, fraud, deception, hypocrisy

 

Crooked ways. The anthropology of communicative detours

Scholars from various fields (history, anthropology, sociology, psychology, law, economy, indology, theology etc.) present case studies to reflect on human conditions of truth and lies in communication and interaction in the respective fields.

REINHARD, WOLFGANG: Einleitung: Warum wir nicht bei der Wahrheit bleiben [Introduction: The reason why we depart from truth]

MÜLLER, KLAUS E.: Ein offenes Wort gefährdet die Wahrheit. “Crooked Speech” in vormodernen Gesellschaften [Crooked speech in pre-modern societies]

LEVEN, KARL-HEINZ: "Mit Laien soll man nicht viel schwatzen, sondern nur das Notwendige.” Arzt und Patient in der hippokratischen Medizin [Doctor and patient in Hippocratic medicine]

HINÜBER, OSKAR VON: Kautalya, die Inkarnation der “krummen Tour”, und die Wahrheit im alten Indien [Kautalya, the incarnation of “crooked ways”, and truth in ancient India]

FLAIG, EGON: Falsche Bescheidenheit. Die Cunctatio des Tiberius - ein misslungener Rite de passage [The Cunctatio of Tiberius]

RITZ-MÜLLER, UTE: Erinnerungskultur der Mosi von Tenkodogo (Burkina Faso). Leitfunktion fiktiver Königsgräber als Erinnerungsstätten der Machtgeschichte [Culture of remembering of the Mosi at Tenkodogo, Burkina Faso. The leading function of fictitious kings” tombs as places of remembering the history of power]

BUTZ, REINHARDT: Die “Wiederherstellung” der Wahrheit und die “Schaffung” der Wahrheit in mittelalterlichen Urkunden [“Reconstructing” and “creating” truth in medieval documents]

CONRAD, ANNE: "Frommer Betrug" und “die Wahrheit des Evangeliums.” Deutungen von Wahrheit und Lüge im Christentum [“Pious fraud” and the “truth of the gospel”. Interpreting truth and lies in Christianity]

REINHARDT, NICOLE: Dissimulation, Politik und Moral [Dissimulation, politics, and morals]

ASCH, RONALD G.: Der Höfling ab Heuchler? Unaufrichtigkeit, Konversationsgemeinschaft und Freundschaft am frühneuzeitlichen Hof [Dishonesty, community of conversation, and friendship at the early modern Court]

BURSCHEL, PETER: Geheimnisrede. Der Fall Königsmarck in den Briefen der Kurfürstin Sophie von Hannover [Secret talk. The case of Königsmarck in the letters of the electoral princess Sophie von Hannover]

REINHARD, WOLFGANG: Geheimnis und Fiktion als politische Realität [Secret and fiction as political reality]

 BERNECKER, WALTHER L.: Beschweigen von Geschichte. Zur Vergangenheitsaufarbeitung in der spanischen Demokratie [Reappraising the past in Spanish democracy]

WALDMANN, PETER: Organisierter Fremdbetrug als Selbstbetrug. “Verschwindenlassen” als Machttechnik der letzten argentinischen Militärregierung [“Letting disappear” as a technique of power during the last Argentine military rule]

DEPENHEUER, OTTO: Recht als kommunikativer Umweg. Erscheinungsformen und Funktionen narrativer Unwahrheiten [Law as a communicative detour: Forms and functions of narrative untruth]

RUBACH, WALTER: Betrug und Selbstbetrug. Betrachtungen eines Strafverreidigers [Fraud and self-deception. Reflections of a defense counsel]

GERSCHLAGER, CAROLINE: Täuschung auf Märkten. Eine Untersuchung aus ökonomischer Sicht [Deception on markets. An investigation from an economic perspective]

KIESER, ALFRED: Organisierte Heuchelei [Organized hypocrisy]

CHARLTON, MICHAEL: "Krumme Touren" in Talkshows. Drei Fallbeispiele [“Crooked ways” in talk shows - three cases]

SCHNEIDER, WERNER: Gesagtes und Ungesagtes - Sagbares und Unsagbares. Beidseitige “(Un-)Aufrichtigkeit” im wissenschaftlichen Interview [(In-)Sincerity on both sides in scientific interviews]

SCHIEWE, JÜRGEN: Konstruktion und Dekonstruktion des schönen Scheins in der öffentlichen Kommunikation [Construction and deconstruction of the keeping up of appearances in public communication]

 

 

 

REINHARD, WOLFGANG & JUSTIN STAGL (Eds.)

Menschen und Märkte. Studien zur historischen Wirtschaftsanthropologie

(Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für historische Anthropologie e.V. 9)

Wien: Böhlau Verlag 2007

502 pp., Euro 59,-; ISBN 3-205-77299-6

Keywords: historical anthropology, anthropology and historical science, economic anthropology, labor, money, economics (ancient India), capitalism, urban culture, begging, Islamic economics, traders and rule, rural haggling, homo oeconomicus, free trade, law and economics, rational choice

 

Men and markets. Studies in historical economic anthropology

This book is based on a conference. The contributors are mostly historians, orientalists, literary scientists, economists, and anthropologists who investigate the “human condition” in various cases in an approach originating from historical science.

REINHARD, WOLFGANG: Historische Wirtschaftsanthropologie. Einführung [Historical economic anthropology]

MÜLLER, KLAUS E.: Arbeit adelt nicht, sondern macht gemein [Labor does not ennoble one, but makes one common]

PAUL, AXEL T.: Der Tausch, die Zahlung und die Münze. Über einige Schwierigkeiten und Wegmarken beim Versuch, eine Geschichte des Geldes zu schreiben [Some difficulties in writing a history of money]

STIETENCRON, HEINRICH VON: Wirtschaftsverhalten und Wirtschaftsethik im Alten Indien [Economic behavior and economic ethic in Old India]

WILCKE, CLAUS: Markt und Arbeit im Alten Orient am Ende des 3. Jahrtausends v. Chr. [Market and labor in the ancient Orient at the end of the 3rd millennium B.C.]

FLAIG, EGON: Mit Kapitalismus keine antike Stadtkultur. Überlegungen zum Euergetismus [With capitalism - no antique urban culture. Reflecting on Euergetism]

HÖLLMANN, THOMAS: Als die Löwen nutzlos wurden. Anmerkungen zum chinesischen Tributsystem unter den Dynastien Ming (1368-1644) und Qing (1644-1911) [Notes on the Chinese tributary system in the Ming and Quing dynasties]

KOLB, RAIMUND T.: Die Ökonomie des organisierten Bettelns am Beispiel der Stadt Peking im späten 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhundert [The economy of organized begging in Beijing in the late 19th and early 20th centuries]

BADRY, ROSWITHA: "lslamische Ökonomik"- die späte Reaktion muslimischer Akteure auf die Einbindung in die europäische kapitalistische Weltwirtschaft: eine gelungene Synthese von Zweck- und Wertrationalität? [Islamic economics - the late reaction of Muslim actors on the inclusion into European capitalist world economy: a positive synthesis of utility- and value rationality?]

MITTERAUER, MICHAEL: Kaufleute an der Macht - Voraussetzungen des Protokolonialismus in den italienischen Seerepubliken am Beispiel Pisas [Ruling traders: Preconditions of proto-colonialism in the Italian Sea Republics, exemplified in the case of Pisa]

DINGES, MARTIN: Wandel des Stellenwertes der Okonomie in Selbstzeugnissen der Frühen Neuzeit [Changes in the position of economy in self-testimonials of Early Modernity]

SCHINDLER, NORBERT: Ländliche Schacherwirtschaft am Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts [Rural haggling economy at the end of the 18th century]

PLUMPE, WERNER: Die Geburt des"Homo oeconomicus". Historische Überlegungen zur Entstehung und Bedeutung des Handlungsmodells der modernen Wirtschaft [The birth of “homo oeconomicus”. Historical reflections on the origin and meaning of the action model of modern economy]

OSTERHAMMEL, JÜRGEN: Anthropologisches zum Freihandel [Anthropological remarks on free trade]

FIKENTSCHER, WOLFGANG: Die Rolle des Marktes in der Wirtschaftsanthropologie und das globale Wirtschaftsrecht [The role of the market in economic anthropology and global economic law]

KIRCHGÄSSNER, GEBHARD: Das Gespenst der Ökonomisierung [The ghost of economization]

RÜPKE, JÖRG: Der "rational choice approach towards religion": Theoriegeschichte als Religionsgeschichte

BLÜMLE, GEROLD & NILS GOLDSCHMIDT: Die historische Bedingtheit ökonomischer Theorien und deren kultureller Gehalt [The historical conditionality of economic theories and their cultural content]

PÖRKSEN, UWE: Expansion der Wirtschaftssprache  [The expansion of economic language]

 

 

 

RICHTER, KURT F. & KARIN RICHTER

Probleme der Integration von schamanischen Heilkulturen in die westliche Psychotherapie

Curare 30.2007:49-58

Keywords: shamanism, neoshamanism, healing ritual, holistic healing, multilateral psychotherapy, transfer of methods, contexts, meta-narrative 

 

##Some problems to integrate Shamanistic ways of healing into Western psychotherapeutic settings

This report deals with the difficulties which can appear when trying to transfer shamanic healing methods into Central European settings of psychotherapy. The following questions are discussed: What kind of misunderstanding can occur when different healing cultures meet one another? Where are the limits of integration? What happens to shamanic healing techniques when practiced in foreign social environments? Finally some possibilities of shamanic healing methods in holistic multilateral psychotherapy are demonstrated.##

 

 

 

SACKMANN, REINHOLD

Lebenslaufanalyse und Biografieforschung. Eine Einführung

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2007

230 pp., Euro 19.90; ISBN 3-531-14805-2

Keywords: life course analysis, biographical research, biography, methods in biographical research

 

Life course analysis and biographical research. An introduction

During the last decades life course analysis and biographical research have become a central method for studying individualization in dynamic societies. In this textbook for teaching, individual study, and practice, important theories in this field are discussed, like generation, age, biography, and institutionalization. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are introduced in detail, and there is a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in empirical life course analysis and biographical research regarding education, work/labor, family, pair production, health, aging, and wealth. Also, there are exercises for application.

 

 

 

SCHEUREGGER, DANIEL & TIM SPIER

Working-Class authoritarianism und die Wahl rechtspopulistischer Parteien. Eine empirische Untersuchung für fünf westeuropäische Staaten

Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 59.2007:59-80

Keywords: right-wing populism, populism and authoritarianism, parties and authoritarianism, voting behavior, workers, authoritarianism, workingclass authoritarianism, Lipset, S.M.

 

##Working-Class authoritarianism and the vote for right-wing populist parties. An empirical analysis for five West European countries

May the often stated over-representation of workers in the electorates of right-wing populist parties in Western Europe be explained by the so-called "working-class authoritarianism"-thesis by S.M. Lipset? Following this thesis, there are specific socialisation and deprivation experiences in the social situation of the working-class, favouring the development of authoritarian traits and making class-members more susceptible to authoritarian parties. On the basis of the European Social Survey of 2002 the thesis is tested empirically by using the Goldthorpe class scheme and two measures of authoritarianism. It is shown that workers are more inclined to vote for right-wing populist parties and have higher levels of authoritarianism. Furthermore, persons with high levels of authoritarianism are more likely to vote for such parties. The authors conclude that disproportionately high shares of votes for right-wing populist parties from the working-class are, indeed, mediated by authoritarianism. In addition to this, class affiliation has an independent effect on voting behaviour. Finally, it is found that authoritarianism has an even stronger impact on the vote for right-wing populist parties in the service class and the class of routine non-manual workers, though being less frequent there.##

 

 

 

 

 

 

SCHIMANG, DIETER

Eine anthropologische Revolution - und ihre totalitäre Dynamik. Die dramatische Kehrseite der Individualisierung

Frankfurt/M.: IKO Verlag 2007

268 pp., Euro 25.90; ISBN 3-88939880-2

Keywords: individualization, social vs. individualization, totalitarianism, crisis and individualism, self-subjugation, subjugation and totalitarianism

 

An anthropological revolution - and its totalitarian dynamic. The dramatic reverse side of individualization

In the reversal of the traditional dominance of the Social in favor of the individual person the anthropological dimension of the bourgeois revolution shows. This freedom and autonomy also burdens the individual with his own transitoriness, powerlessness and helplessness; and this entails that the individual has to establish meaning, being, and longue durée for himself - freely and autonomously. This task seems to be extreme, unbearable, and impossible. The author thinks that the modern individual, in situations of crisis - as in the 20th century -, would frequently escape into self-subjugation, especially extreme, totalitarian forms. This is an essay taking a universalist-anthropological perspective, including general political, ontological, theological, and a rather “global” view on processes described.

 

 

 

SCHMIDT-LAUBER, BRIGITTA (Ed.)

Ethnizität und Migration. Einführung in Wissenschaft und Arbeitsfelder

Berlin: Reimer Verlag 2007

319 pp., Euro 22.90; ISBN 3-496-02797-3

Keywords: ethnicity and migration, migration and ethnicity, intercultural work, minorities, state, glocal, multiculturalism

 

Ethnicity and migration. Introduction to the discipline and areas of work

The topics of ethnicity and migration are dealt with through the specializations of the various authors in this volume, and the editor of the book regards ethnicity and migration as topics of central importance having influence on theorizing and methodology. The papers thus provide basic knowledge for central research perspectives and professions.

SCHMIDT-LAUBER, BRIGITTA: Ethnizität und Migration als ethnologische Forschungs- und Praxisfelder. Eine Einführung [Ethnicity and migration as objects of anthropological research and practice]

SÖKEFELD, MARTIN: Problematische Begriffe: “Ethnizität”, “Rasse”, “Kultur”, “Minderheit” [Problematic notions: “ethnicity”, “race”, “culture”, “minority”]

FEISCHMIDT, MARGIT: Ethnizität - Perspektiven und Konzepte der ethnologischen Forschung [Ethnicity - Perspectives and concepts of anthropological research]

DARIEVA, TSYPYLMA: Migrationsforschung in der Ethnologie [Migration research in anthropology]

HANNERZ, ULF: Das Lokale und das Globale: Kontinuität und Wandel [The Local and the Glocal: continuity and change]

BADE, KLAUS J.: Migration und Ethnizität in der Historischen Migrationsforschung [Migration and ethnicity in historical migration research]

OLTMER, JOCHEN: Staat, Nation und Migration. Zur politischen Konstruktion von Minderheiten in der deutschen Geschichte [State, nation, and migration. On the political construction of minorities in German history]

RÖMHILD, REGINA: Fremdzuschreibungen - Selbstpositionierungen. Die Praxis der Ethnisierung im Alltag der Einwanderungsgesellschaft [Ascriptions of others - self-positionings. The practice of ethnization in the everyday life of immigrant society]

HESS, SABINE: Transnationalisrnus und die Demystifizierung des Lokalen [Transnationalism and the de-mystification of the Local]

DRACKLƒ, DORLE: Jenseits von Verbinden und Trennen: Migration und Medien [Beyond connecting and separating: Migration and media]

WELZ, GISELA: Inszenierungen der Multikulturalität: Paraden und Festivals als Forschungsgegenstände [Stage-settings of multiculturality: Parades and festivals as objects of research]

MOOSMÜLLER, ALOIS: Interkulturelle Kommunikation als Wissen und Alltagspraxis [Intercultural communication as knowledge and everyday practice]

VORHOFF, KARIN: Ethnologinnen und Ethnologen in der Sozialen Arbeit: Zwischen Verbandspolitik und Projektarbeit [Anthropologists in social work: Between institutional politics and project work]

TUSCHINSKY, CHRISTINE: Interkulturelle Fortbildungen in der Einwanderungsgesellschaft [Intercultural further education in immigrant society]

BOSSE, ELKE: Vermittlung interkultureller Kompetenzen im Hochschul-studium [Mediating intercultural competence in higher education]

KRAMER, DIETER: Ethnologen und interkulturelle Handlungsfelder in Staat und Kommunen [Anthropologists and intercultural fields of action in state and communal institutions]

UZAREWICZ, CHARLOTTE: Ethnologische Gesundheitsarbeit und transkulturelle Pflege [Anthropological work in the health sector and transcultural health care]

GIORDANO, CHRISTIAN: Rechtsanthropologie zwischen Theorie und Praxis [Anthropology of law between theory and practice]

 

 

 

SCHMAUKS, DAGMAR

Semiotische Streifzüge. Essays aus der Welt der Zeichen

(Kultur. Forschung und Wissenschaft 9)

Berlin: Lit Verlag 2007

250 pp., Euro 29.90; ISBN 3-8258-0705-4

Keywords: semiotics, signs 

 

Semiotic wanderings. Essays from the world of signs

Signs are omnipresent. Schmauks opines that while texts, paintings, rituals have been frequently researched, other object types were rarely analyzed semiotically. So these 44 short essays on various essays are an eyeopener, increasing or creating sensitivity for the semiotic gaze in a practical, example-focused way. There is an introductory chapter on categories and theoretical aspects of semotics, followed by examples - from the “lifeless” world (objects), then beings (from plants via animals to humans), then semiotic aspects of communication with a stress on language, then works of art, and finally cross-communication (also language-oriented).

 

 

 

SCHNELL, CHRISTIANE

Regulierung der Kulturberufe in Deutschland. Strukturen, Akteure, Strategien

Wiesbaden: Deutscher Universitäts-Verlag 2007

261 pp., Euro 35.90; ISBN 3-8350-6076-0

Keywords: professions of culture, free-lance cultural work, artists in Germany, social conditions for artists, authors and artists, cultural professions

 

Regulating cultural professions in Germany. Structures, actors, strategies

Cultural professions are considered as forerunners in the job field of knowledge and information societies. Although free-lance jobs in this area have a long tradition in Germany, but the framework and preconditions to work free-lance nowadays have clearly changed due to economization of the culture and media sector. So the question of the range of (economic, political) structures and strategies arises which govern - and should enable - professional autonomy and personal responsibility in this field. Schnell develops a concept of individual professionalization which employs the appropriation and development of actorial resources as a dynamic process of the integration of structure and action. She analyzes benefits and limits of regulation, e.g. in the case of the Künstlersozialversicherung (a federal social security system for artists and free-lance authors etc.) and copyright law, and strategies of collective action and individual coping with the confinements of the market and social insecurity.

 

 

 

SCHNEPEL, BURKHARD

“In sleep a king...” The politics of dreaming in a cross-cultural perspective

Paideuma 51.2005:209-220

Keywords: dreaming, night, anthropology of night, wakeful state

 

##This paper concerns a phenomenon or activity that is typically associated with th night; dreams or dreaming. This phenomenon or activity may occur during the day as well, but then it is often prefixed with the world “day”, as in “day-dreaming” and “day-dreams”. This paper is not concerned with these, though ultimately it deals with the day, inasmuch as it deals with the night... I would like to investigate the complex interdependencies and mutual influences of night-time dreams and waking life.##

 

 

 

SCHNEPEL, BURKHARD & EYAL BEN-ARI

"When darkness comes...": Steps toward an anthropology of the night

Paideuma 51.2005:153-163

Keywords: anthropology of night, night and anthropology

 

##...This means... that the night is an anthropological topic of the utmost relevance. Indeed, anthropologists have everywhere, at all times, also investigated phenomena associated with the night. As yet, however, relatively few enquiries into nightly proceedings and phenomena per se appear to have been conducted, no systematic studies or volumes bringing together different aspects of the investigation of the night...##

 

 

 

SLOTERDIJK, PETER

Derrida ein Ägypter. Über das Problem der jüdischen Pyramide

(Edition Suhrkamp 2502)

Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp Verlag 2007

75 pp., Euro 7,-; ISBN 3-518-125021-1

Keywords: Derrida, J., philosophy, cultural memory, memory (theories), theories, contradictory identity, metaphysics

 

Derrida an Egyptian. On the problem of the Jewish pyramid

Sloterdijk discusses Derrida in relation to Luhmann, Freud, Thomas Mann, F. Borkenau, R. Debray, Hegel, and B. Groys. He does so by reflecting on Derrida”s opinion (shortly before his death) that: 1. He would be completely forgotten from the day of his death; and 2. His certain feeling that some of his work would be recollected in cultural memory - and that these two subjective “evidences” stood side by side unconnected. These two perhaps contradicting attitudes existed side by side in Derrida, and Sloterdijk interprets them as an expressive dimension in Derrida hinting at his philosophy - it may be a self-description approximating the quality of a metaphysical statement.

 

 

 

STAVENHAGEN, RODOLFO

Indigene Völker und Menschenrechte im globalen Zeitalter

Paideuma 52.2006:197-204

Keywords: human rights, globalization, indigenous peoples and rights

 

Indigenous peoples and human rights in the global age

The author starts with early approaches of the first half of the 20th century, including R. Redfield, and continues by alluding to attempts at definitions of what is a people, and some developments of the topic in the following decades, activities of the UN etc.

 

 

 

 

STRECK, BERNHARD (Ed.)

Die gezeigte und die verborgene Kultur

Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag 2007

200 pp., Euro 58,-; ISBN 3-447-05600-7

Keywords: hidden culture, displayed and hidden culture, taboo, language, Shiite strategies, belief protection, shame and theater, theater, action and statement, statement and action, sorcery, magic, Babylon

 

Visible and hidden culture

The papers of this book are based on a series of lectures at the University of Leipzig in 2005-2006 - dealing with the many dimensions of culture as understood and used in various disciplines.

STRECK, BERNHARD: Einleitung: Die gezeigte und die verborgene Kultur [Introduction: Visible and hidden culture]

NIPPA, ANNEGRET: Vom Wandel der Tabus - aus der Welt des Wissens [Changing taboos - from the world of knowledge]

HEUSING, GERALD: Eine Sprache namens “Gartenabfall”: Über Sondersprachen in Afrika [A language named “garden garbage”: On special languages in Africa]

KLEMM, VERENA: Verbergen, Verschweigen, Verstellen: Konzepte und Praktiken zum Schutz von Glauben und Gemeinschaft bei schiitischen Minderheiten [Hiding, keeping quiet, disguising: Concepts and practices to protect belief and community among Shiite minorities]

HEEG, GÜNTHER: Die Geste der Scham als Grundgeste des Theaters [The gesture of shame as a basic gesture in theater]

FISCHER-ELFERT, HANS-WERNER: Gezeigtes und Verborgenes im Alten Ägypten [Displayed and hidden in Old Egypt]

WOLFF, H. EKKEHARD: Was sie sagen und was sie tun: Die “Sprachenfrage in Afrika” im politischen Diskurs [What they say and what they do: The “language question in Africa” in political discourse]

WEISS, ALEXANDER: Vom offenbarten Geheimnis zur partiellen Verheimlichung: Die Außendarstellung der frühen Christen [From revealed secret to partially keeping secret]

RIHA, ORTRUN: "Die Zauberer sollst du nicht am Leben lassen": Magie in der mittelalterlichen Medizin [“The sorcerers you shouldn”t allow to live”: Magic in medieval medicine]

ZGOLL, ANNETTE: Schauseite, verborgene Seite und geheime Deutung des babylonischen Neujahrsfestes. Entwurf einer Handlungstheorie von “Zeigen und Verbergen” [Displayed and hidden side and secret interpretation of the Babylonian New Years” Festival. Outline of a theory of practice of “Showing and hiding”]

THIEL, JOSEF FRANZ

Über die Mission zur Ethnologie

Paideuma 51.2005:7-21

Keywords: Thiel, J.F., autobiography, anthropologists, missionaries

 

Via mission to anthropology

This autobiographical account relates how Thiel became a missionary (SVD - Societas Verbi Divini) and an anthropologist, which is intertwined with humanitarian work and details of his work in Africa, later his teaching as an anthropologist in Frankfurt and as a museologist.

 

 

 

TILG, BERNHARD JOSEF & FRIEDRICH PÖHL

“Donnerwetter, wir sprechen Deutsch!” Erinnerung an Franz Boas (1858-1942)

Anthropos 102.2007:547-559

Keywords: Boas, F., Kant, I., evolutionary paradigm, essentialism, racism

 

Remembering Franz Boas (1858-1942)

##This article stresses the point that Boas, the (co-)founder of American Anthropology at the end of the 19th century already raises questions, which initiate the "Cultural Turn" in anthropology and the transformation of the Humanities into Cultural Sciences Boas developed his own scientific as well as ethical and philosophical views and methods influenced by the ideas of Humboldt, Kant, and Cassirer. He abandoned an essentialist concept of culture and anticipated the affinity of racism and evolutionism rejecting the notion of an universalistic cultural evolution particularly if the evolutionary progress is based on the idea of race and consequently the denial of individuality.##

 

 

 

VERNE, MARKUS

Die Rückkehr kultureller Stimmigkeit. Eine Kritik des Aneignungs-konzepts - nicht nur im Hinblick auf den Verlauf von Mikro-kreditprojekten

Sociologus 57.2007:227-265

Keywords: globalization, agency, appropriation, glocalization, culture concept, heterogeneous culture, essentialism, functionalism, diffusion processes, bricolage

 

 

##The return of cultural harmony. A critique of the concept of appropriation

Recently the concept of ,appropriation" has gained some importance in ongoing discussions on globalization, providing a means of emphasizing the agency of those involved in processes of cultural diffusion. The key assumption underlying this perspective is that goods, ideas or practices spreading around the world are not just absorbed by those confronted with them, but are remodeled and modified according to local cultural conditions. It is the aim of the paper to critically discuss this idea of appropriation as a practice of cultural contextualization. By assuming, I argue, that innovations are adjusted according to local cultural contexts, the concept of appropriation sharply contrasts the local with the foreign, in this way presupposing an image of culture as a coherent set of beliefs and practices that is unduly harmonious. Thus, to approach globalization by way of focusing on processes of cultural appropriation implies and evokes not only an essentialist, but also a systemic, closed, hence functionalist notion of culture that doesn't do justice neither to the complexity of cultural diffusion, nor to human life in general.

The way in which the population of a small Sahelian village in Southern Niger dealt with the money supplied by a microfinance development project provides a good example for illustrating these theoretical constellations. For here comes to light what applies for processes of cultural diffusion in general: That the focus on agency inherent to the concept of appropriation, is too narrow to match the actual complexity of diffusion processes, since it pays too little tribute to determining contexts - other than the notion of bricolage, which seems much more suitable in this respect.##

 

 

 

WIDMER, PETER

Metamorphosen des Signifikanten. Zur Bedeutung des Körperbilds für die Realität des Subjekts

Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag 2006

191 pp., Euro 23.80; ISBN 3-89942-467-0

Keywords: body image, subject and reality, psychoanalysis, narcissism, Lacan, J., epistemology, writing and self-image, self-image, sexuality, psychopathology

 

Metamorphoses of the significant. On the meaning of the body image for the reality of the subject

Starting from the concept of deficiency (by which humans, other than animals, are characterized) the author presents how the subject - faced with the “Other” of language, orients itself. He defines language as fathomless, opposite of which are body images, which originate in the Other of the reflexion#spiegelbild in which the growing subject discovers himself. This reflexion leads the subject back to ist own invisible and bodily/corporeal characteristics on this side of the mirror - the reflection facilitates creativity. In this process body images (faces, hands, shapes/forms, etc.) are transported, in transformed forms - as matrix, as blueprint -, into perceptions, behavior, cognition, written text: reality constitutes itself as an anthropomorph one. The chapters deal with: representation and body image; the subject in the mirror; the pitfalls of narcissism; epistemological aspects of the I; Kant and Lacan; psychosis and reflection; speaking and writing; sexuality and body image; and certain clinical/pathological aspects, neurosis, perversion, and therapy.

 

 

 

WILLE, BORIS

Salve Bakkalaureus. Konzeption und Wahrnehmungen des Bachelor-Studiengangs Ethnologie in Halle

Cargo 27.2007:41-44

Keywords: Bachelor course (Germany), anthropology (curriculum)

 

Salve Baccalaureus. Concept and perception of the Bachelor course in anthropology at Halle

Perceptions and reactions regarding the new Bachelor (undergraduate course system) of students, based on a questionnaire, is topic of this report. The results show a moderately good state of affairs.

 

 

 

ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR KULTURAUSTAUSCH

Stuttgart: Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen 57.2007

Keywords: war, traveling, tolerance, women, feminism

 

The individual issues deal with the following topics:

57,1.2007: Was vom Krieg übrig bleibt [What is left of war]

57,2.2007: Unterwegs. Wie wir reisen [On the road. How we travel]

57,3.2007: Toleranz und ihre Grenzen [Tolerance and its limits]

57,4.2007: Frauen, wie gehts' [Women, how are you?]

ZIMMERMANN, ANN C.

Online-Öffentlichkeiten als Gegenstand empirischer Forschung

Berliner Journal für Soziologie 17.2007:167-187

Keywords: online public sphere, public spheres, media research, empirical online research

 

Online public spheres/audiences as an object of empirical research

##So far, research of online public spheres has mainly been carried out as an online version of offline public spheres. The possibilities of the new medium to create new and Internet-specific forms of a public sphere have been ignored both on the theoretical and empirical level. In this article, I propose an approach that allows for the conceptual ization of new forms of online public spheres. It takes the Internet user, the providers of web sites and the structural specificities of the Internet into account. The main thrust of the article is the question as to where the Internet provides public spheres that fulfill functions similar to their offline siblings yet are characterized by an Internet-specific quality. Taking the case of online public spheres that are created by search engines, it can be illustrated how sphere may be analyzed empirically. In order to be able to judge their potential, online public spheres are compared with printed mass media. In a final reflection, I propose a theoretical framework that could be fruitful for the explanatory interpretation of the patterns found in the empirical analysis.##

 

 

 

ZINSER, HARTMUT

Magie und Medizin. Frobenius-Vorlesung 2004

Paideuma 51.2005:7-23-40

Keywords: magic and medicine, medicine and magic, healing and medicine, alternative healing

 

Magic and medicine. Frobenius Lecture 2004

Zinser starts by focusing on bio-medicine and alternative healing as notions of combat, then on magic in the history of religions and in anthropology, then in alternative healing, followed by individual and collective religious actions, and exlusion of the respective other notion of combat.

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

AFRICA

 

 

 

ALBER, ERDMUTE & ASTRID BOCHOW

Familienwandel in Afrika. Ein Forschungsüberblick

Paideuma 52.2006:227-250

Keywords: family in Africa, colonialism and family, postcolonialism, globalization

 

Family change in Africa. An overview of research

The authors concentrate on changes during colonialism, and post-colonialism (sociological research on elites), neo-Marxism, research on women and gender, new kinship research in the 1990s, and the family in times of globalization.

 

 

 

ARTUS, PHILIPP

Von ungeahnten Einflüssen des Feldforschers. Erfahrungen aus Südafrika

Cargo 27.2007:30-32

Keywords: Aids, HIV, communication on Aids, fieldwork

 

Of undreamed-of influences of the fieldworker. Experiences from South Africa

This article is based on the author”s fieldnotes while he worked on the communication of Aids (HIV) in the township of Kayamandi. Artus interviewed a number of people and reports about their sensibilities to talk about their illness.

 

 

 

AXTMANN, DIRK

Reform autoritärer Herrschaft in Nordafrika. Verfassungs- und Wahl-rechtsreformen in Algerien, Tunesien und Marokko zwischen 1988 und 2004

Wiesbaden: Deutscher Universitätsverlag 2007

353 pp., Euro 39.90; ISBN 3-8350-6073-9

Keywords: authoritarian rule, Maghreb states and politics, elites in Maghreb, elections in Maghreb, reforms in Maghreb, power in Maghreb, rule in Maghreb

 

Reform of authoritarian rule in North Africa. Reforms of constitution and election laws in Algeria, Tunisia, and Morocco between 1988 and 2004

Transition research has granted well-founded insights into the preconditions, the course, and conditions for the success of democratic system change. But little is known about the mechanisms of change within authoritarian systems. Using the case of the three Maghreb countries the author presents a detailed introduction to the variety of constitutional and electoral instruments which are used by the elites to modify and change dimensions of their authoritarian regimes. Thus, reforms which have taken place can be shown to serve purposes typical of restructuring authoritarian rule which go beyond mere stabilization of power: they serve the purpose of constructing a “democratic and pluralist fa¬çade”: they should give more participation to the people, make the political system more effective, effect a rotation of elites, and control and include the opposition. According to the author the present framework of analysis can be applied to other states of Africa, Asia, and the Near East as well.

 

 

 

BAUER, KERSTIN

Kleidung und Kleidungspraktiken im Norden der C‚Ñ¢te d'Ivoire. Geschichte und Dynamiken des Wandels vom Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts bis zur Gegenwart

(Beiträge zur Afrikaforschung 30)

Berlin: Lit Verlag 2007

583 pp., Euro 49.90; ISBN 3-8258-0301-8

Keywords: clothing and culture, garments and culture, change and clothing, ritual sphere and clothing, colonialism

 

Clothing and clothing practices in the Northern Ivory Coast. History and dynamics of change from the end of the 19th century to the present

Why do handwoven textiles in West Africa more and more disappear in everyday usage, and why are they kept in ritual-ceremonial contexts? The book is on history and change of garments and focuses on the textile artisans and traders of the Muslim Dyula and their relations with other groups of society. It also has a focus on the actors and their practices regarding clothing in various contexts of action. The author identifies several 'garmental' spheres each of which are governed by singular dynamics of change and interaction. The book is based on historical sources and fieldwork in Southern Burkina Faso. Bauer starts with a theoretical and methodological part and then introduces the Dyala, their history and society. Then, textiles of the pre-colonial and early colonial periods are presented, and another chapter deals with pre-colonial garments and up to the two world wars, followed by a chapter on post-colonial society of the C‚Ñ¢te d'Ivoire. The last chapters deal with garments in the ritual sphere, and in everyday situations after independence.

 

 

 

BEHRENDS, ANDREA

Der Dafur-Konflikt und die tschadisch-sudanesische Grenze - Regionaler Kontext und lokale Rekonfigurationen

Sociologus 57.2007:99-132

Keywords: Dafur Conflict, conflict, war, violence

 

##The Dafur conflict and the Chad/Sudan border - Regional context and local re-configurations

The border region between Chad and Sudan has a particular history and importance in the development not only of the government and people in Chad. but also affects and is affected by a much wider international field, from neighboring Sudan and Libya, to Egypt, France, and the United States. As of September 2006, the war in Sudan's western Darfur region on the border with Chad has been raging for more than three years with over 200,000 Sudanese citizens living in Chadian refugee camps and more than two million displaced in Darfur. This article will begin by attempting to disentangle the complex historical connections as well as the intertwined relations between the present governments of Chad, Sudan, and others, in order to develop a frame for understanding the actors' perspectives in recent violent developments in the border region. The second part will focus on the local border groups mired in a cycle of violence that keeps returning to the forefront of the regional conflict.##

 

 

 

BIERSCHENK, THOMAS & MARION FISCHER (Eds.)

Islam und Entwicklung in Afrika

(Mainzer Beiträge zur Afrikaforschung 16)

Köln: Köppe Verlag 2007

124 pp., Euro 21.80; ISBN 3-89645-816-2

Keywords: Aids, HIV, development in Africa, Islam and development, tribalism, Islamic law, law, girls” education, good governance

 

Islam and development in Africa

The authors discuss participation in development measures which accepts the recipients of development as “stakeholders”, and development policy has realized that participation is the most effective and economical way of development.

BIERSCHENK, THOMAS: Islam, säkularer Staat und partizipative Entwicklung in Afrika. Eine Einführung [Islam, the secular state, and participatory development in Africa]

FISCHER, MARION & ANJA SÖGER: Die Beratungsstelle "Islam und Entwicklungszusammenarbeit in Afrika" der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GTZ) [The advice center “Islam and development cooperation in Africa” of the German Society for Technical cooperation Ltd.]

GANTER, ELVIRA: Islam und Gute Regierungsführung: Wie wirksam sind die Ansätze der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit? [Islam and good governance: How effective are approaches of development cooperation?]

WERTHMANN, KATJA: Islam in Afrika - Ein Überblick [Islam in Africa - an overview]

REBSTOCK, ULRICH: Democracy, Islamicity and Tribalism in Mauritania

GÜNTHER, URSULA: Südafrikas Lesarten des Islam im Spiegel der Debatten um die Einführung des muslimischen Familien- und Personenstandsrechts [South African varieties of Islam as reflected in debates about the introduction of Muslim Family and personal law]

SCHLÖSSER, JULIA: Rechtspluralismus im Département Mayo-Sava im Norden Kameruns - ein Zusammenspiel von lokalen Rechtsvorstellungen, islamischem Recht und staatlich kodifiziertem Recht [Pluralism of law in the Département Mayo-Sava in Northern Cameroon - local law concepts, Islamic law, and codified state law]

BIGALKE, RUTH: Islam und Mädchenbildung in Guinea - oder wer hat Angst vor Madame Bovary? [Islam and girls” education in Guinea - or: Who is afraid of Madame Bovary?]

GÜLLEMANN, HEINO: Mali: Muslimische Antworten auf HIV/AIDS. Anknüpfungspunkte für die Entwicklungszusammenarbeit [Mali: Muslim answers to HIV/AIDS. Points of departure for development cooperation]

 

 

 

 

 

 

BOCHOW, ASTRID

Valentinstag in Kumasi, Ghana: Sexualität und Generationenbeziehungen im Wandel

Afrika Spectrum 42.2007:195-218

Keywords: Pentecostal Churches, Valentine's Day, change in Ghana, youth and Pentecostalism, sexualized spheres, premarital relationships

 

Valentine”s Day in Kumasi, Ghana: Changing sexuality and relations between generations

##In the past five years, Valentine's Day has been celebrated in Ghana by young people in the public sphere. This opened up public discussions giving insights into changes of youth and childhood in postcolonial Ghana: The celebrations are closely connected with the arrival of new goods and communication technologies which have been used by young people since the turn of the millennium. The media and Pentecostal Churches create a sexualised public, with 'the youth' as a centre of interest. Schools not only prolong childhood, creating a gap between young people's sexual maturity and their entry into reproductive life, but also offer a sexualised sphere outside their parents' control. Despite these complex changes, young people (and their parents) keep to customary forms of premarital relationships, in which modes of intergenerational communication are marked by silence and secrets about sexual friendships.##

 

 

 

BORSZIK, ANNE-KRISTIN

Die “Interventionsmusik” aus Guinea-Bissau. Kommunikationsprozesse zwischen Produktion und Rezeption in der Lissabonner Diaspora

(Spektrum 96)

Berlin: Lit Verlag 2007

220 pp., Euro 19.90; ISBN 3-8258-9750-5

Keywords: musicology, diaspora and music, “intervening music”, politics and music, subalternity, discourse and music, mass media, media and music, Creole culture

 

“Intervention music” from Guinea-Bissau. Communication processes between production and reception in the Lisbon diaspora

While the two “worlds” of music and politics are separate in Guinea-Bissau, they are definitely intertwined in the production and reception of political music - which is the topic of this book. This kind of music, implicit or explicit, depicts the two realms as intimately connected, and one may ask which social dynamics result from it on the level of the societal discourse on politics. Based on qualitative interviews with musicians the author describes their perspective and music reception as a process of imaginative inclusion, as a mechanism of inclusion, and in the context of the “discoursive construction of knowledge” he opines that in repressive societies - which here applies - there is linguistic ambivalence which leads to the importance of the choice of words (not necessarily topics) in expressing oneself (for instance politically). So this book is devoted to the content and understanding of mass media messages in the case of the Creole cultural world, particularly “intervention music” as political music. While the musicians point to grievances, listeners value their emotionality and proximity to reality. The appendix has some 30 pages of song texts, in original and German translation.

 

 

 

BRÖNING, MICHAEL & HOLGER WEISS (Eds.)

Politischer Islam in Westafrika. Eine Bestandsaufnahme

(Afrikanische Studien 30)

Münster: Lit Verlag 2006

224 pp., Euro 14.90; ISBN 3-8258-9349-9

Keywords: Islam, politics and Islam, civil Islam, economy and Islam, Shari”a debates, radical Islam, Islamism

 

Political Islam in West Africa. A stocktaking

The papers of this book deal with the role of political Islam in West Africa as a societal force, its relevant agents, forms and meanings, and the importance of “radical” Islam there.

BRÖNING, MICHAEL: Einleitung: Politischer Islam in Westafrika [Political Islam in West Africa]

GÜNTHER, URSULA: Historische Entwicklung des Islam in Westafrika - ein Abriss [Historical development of Islam in West Africa - a sketch]

WEISS, HOLGER: Political Islam in Ghana: Muslims and their position in a secular West African state

MIRAN, MARIE: The political economy of civil Islam in C‚Ñ¢te d”Ivoire

MAGASSA, HAMIDOU: Islam und Demokratie in Westafrika - Der Fall Mali [Islam and democracy in West Africa - The case of Mali]

KANE, OUSMANE: Political Islam in Nigeria

KOGELMANN, FRANZ: Shari”a-Debatten - Impressionen aus dem zeit-genössischen Nigeria [Shari”a debates - impressions from contemporary Nigeria]

LOIMEIER, ROMAN: “Political Islam” in contemporary Senegal

BÜTZER, CHRISTINA

The long way home. Contemplations of Southern Sudanese refugees in Uganda

(Spektrum 98)

Münster: Lit Verlag 2007

149 pp., Euro 19.90; ISBN 3-8258-0992-8

Keywords: refugees, peace treaties, ethnic groups, repatriation, exile, state-refugee relations

 

##Following the signature of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the Governments of Northern and Southern Sudan, peace has officially been concluded. But does that necessarily mean that refugees want to return to their home country? How do they determine their decisions and what do they expect from the post-conflict era? Based on extended field research in the Rhino Camp Settlement in Northern Uganda and in the town of Yei in Southern Sudan these questions are being addressed. The focus is on the individuality of each refugee while, at the same time, official responses and policies are being considered and challenged.##

 

 

 

CHINSINGA, BLESSINGS

Democracy, decentralisation and poverty reduction in Malawi

(Mainzer Beiträge zur Afrikaforschung 15)

Köln: Köppe Verlag 2007

233 pp., Euro 29.80; ISBN 3-89645-815-5

Keywords: democracy, decentralisation, poverty reduction, reforms and poverty, decentralization, empowerment, participation

 

## The overall objective of this study was to examine the politics of poverty reduction in the context of political and administrative reforms. The specific objectives of the study include the following:

¥ To investigate the influence of democratic political reforms on decentralisation policy reforms and poverty reduction efforts;

¥ To assess the role of the legal framework and institutional design in decentralisation policy reforms and poverty reduction efforts;

¥ To investigate the dynamics of participation and empowerment as the main goals of decentralisation policy reforms and poverty reduction efforts; and

¥ To assess institutional relationships of stakeholders in the implementation of decentralisation policy reforms and poverty reduction efforts...

While this [first] chapter introduces the scope and focus of the study, chapter two presents a review of literature both at conceptual and empirical levels about the relationships between democracy, decentralisation and poverty reduction. It also sets out the conceptual framework within which the politics of poverty reduction is investigated.

Chapter three presents the political economy setting of the country focusing on the political, economic and policy developments since independence in 1964 specifically highlighting their implications for the poverty reduction agenda, which has been at the centre of Malawi's development strategy since the turn of the 1990s.

Chapter four discusses the history and the evolution of the decentralisation policy reforms in Malawi. While three distinct phases are identified, particular attention is paid to the current phase of the decentralization policy reforms. The features of the decentralisation policy and the l.ocal Government Act are highlighted especially in terms of how they envisage facilitating participation, transparency and accountability in governance, development and poverty reduction issues at the local levels.

Chapter five is divided into two major parts. The first part evaluates how the legal and institutional frameworks have influenced and impacted on the implementation and institutionalisation of the decentralisation policy reforms. The deficiencies and constraints of the legal and institutional frameworks are noted and their implications highlighted...

Chapter six assesses the status of District Assemblies (DAs) as the main implementation agencies of the decentralisation policy reforms...

Chapter seven discusses the views and perceptions of the grassroots about poverty, participation and civic competence within the framework of the decentralisation policy reforms... It concludes with the assessment of factors affecting grassroots participation in development projects prompted by the rather instrumental imagery of the decentralisation policy reforms championed by stakeholders both at national and DA levels.

Chapter eight focuses on the interface between traditional and modern leadership institutions in the implementation and institutionalisation of the decentralisation policy reforms paying particular attention to the inherent tension between them... Finally, chapter nine summarises and concludes the study with some indications of directions for future research.##

 

 

 

 

FUEST, VERONIKA

German-African research co-operation: practices, problems and policies

Afrika Spectrum 42.2007:483-505

Keywords: higher education, research co-operation, foreign aid, development aid, co-operation in research, academic cooperation

 

##This paper provides some insights into the policies, practices and problems of German-African co-operation in research projects conducted in Africa. Differences in interests, knowledge domains and competences, in economic, social and political situations, a lack of awareness thereof, power imbalances and a lack of management skills can severely impede a fruitful co-operation. These factors are compounded by institutional constraints in the German academic sector. Germany seems to be conspicuously absent as a participant in international debates and (development) policies of research co-operation between countries of the North and the South. Research funding policies are at great variance with the complex realities particularly in African countries. A critical analysis of policies and practices of research co-operation elsewhere could contribute to a revision of some of the current policies of research funding organisations in Germany.##

 

 

 

GEIDER, THOMAS

Professionelle Erzähler bei den Kanuri in der Tschadsee-Region (Nigeria). Lokale und internationale Perspektiven

Paideuma 51.2005:89-109

Keywords: story-tellers, narrators, Kanuri storytellers

 

Professional narrators among the Kanuri of the Chad Lake area (Nigeria). Local and international perspectives

Geider focuses on the specific type of professional Kanuri narration and begins with the status of the narrator and his training, followed by the structure of his performance. He also deals with what is being narrated, and what the difference is regarding everyday story-tellers in families. Furthermore: what does professionalization do to the performance of his narration, and the influence of modernity. Comparative aspects deal with the origin of the narrator, and the (transethnic) distribution of narrative topics.

 

 

GERTEL, JÖRG & INGO BREUER (Eds.)

Pastoral Morocco. Globalizing scapes of mobility and insecurity

(Nomaden und Sesshafte 7)

Wiesbaden: Reichert Verlag 2007

257 pp., Euro 54,-; ISBN -3-89500-552-7

Keywords: pastoralism, nomadism, sedentarism, agro-pastoralism, neoliberalism, environmentalism, restructuring agriculture, animal husbandry

 

##Pastoral Morocco explores the mobility of people and livestock in the context of neo-liberal globalization. Mobility is defined as a strategy to maintain and enhance access to resources, and hence comprehended as a stratgegy of pastoralists to cope with insecurity and new risks. Pastoral livelihoods in Morocco are, as the authors point out, increasingly shaped by processes unfolding outside the realm of animal production, for instance by dynamics of labor migration, changing property rights, and new means of communication. This volume examines local consequences of agro-pastoral restructuring. It investigates, for example, the invention of pastoral cooperatives, analyzes territorial changes triggered by urbanization and new spaces of enterprises, assesses the importance of cross border trade and sheep-commodity chaings, scrutinizes the complexity and vulnerability of livelihood portfolios and it ultimately inquires the genealogy of conflicts over pastures. Pastoral Morocco draws on intensive empirical fieldwork and captures the regional diversities of the country. It is the first English language volume that combines Moroccan and European expertise about the changing world of mobility and insecurity that Moroccan pastoralists inhabit.##

GERTEL, JÖRG: Mobility and insecurity. The significance of resources

CHICHE, JEANNE: History of mobility and livestock production in Morocco

DAVIS, DIANA K.: Neoliberalism, environmentalism, and agricultural restructuring in Dryland Morocco

TAG, BOUTAYEB: Social transformation and sedentarization in the Eastern Moroccan steppes

MAHDI, MOHAMED: Pastoralism and institutional change in the Oriental

KHALIL, MOHAMED: Trading livestock: Eastern Moroccan sheep meat commodity chains

BREUER, INGO: Marketing from the margins: The Ilimchan pastoralists of the pre-Sahara

DJOUDI, HOURIA et al.: Animal production, herd mobility, and rangeland access in the Middle Atlas

ADERGHAL, MOHAMED: Territorial restructuring in agro-sylvo-pastoral systems of Atlantic Morocco

BREUER, INGO: Livelihood security and mobility in the High Atlas Mountains

WERNER, JUTTA: Pastoral livelihood strategies in the Draa and the Souss

TURNER, BERTRAM: Social lines of conflict between pastoralism and agriculture in the Souss

RACHIK, HASSAN: Nomads: but how?

 

 

 

GUENTHER, MATHIAS

Current issues  and future directions in Hunter-Gatherer studies

Anthropos 102.2007:371-388

Keywords: San, bushmen, hunter-gatherers, revisionism debate, cultural ecology

 

##The field of hunting-gathering studies has been a contentious branch of anthropology since its inception two centuries back. The article reviews the developments of the field through two generations of researchers, from the 1960s to 1980s, when an ecological paradigm prevailed, to the present generation. The latter largely in reaction to the excessively static and materialist orientation of the previous approach, has turned towards modes of analysis of foraging - or, today, largely "post foraging" - societies that are either historical or hermeneutical or symbolic, as well as "revisionist" (giving to the field its latest bout of contentiousness). It is suggested that these modern (and postmodern) developments have expanded and reinvigorated the field, whose viability and raison d'tre has been questioned by some researchers in recent years. While drawing on research on hunter-gatherers globally, the article is focused predominantly on the San, a hunter-gatherer group of paradigmatic significance in hunter-gatherer studies.##

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HALLER, TOBIAS et al. (Eds.)

Fossil fuels, oil companies, and indigenous peoples. Strategies of multinational oil companies, states, and ethnic minorities. Impact on environment, livelihoods, and cultural change

(Action anthropology 1)

Wien: Lit Verlag 2007

609 pp., Euro 29.90; ISBN 3-8258-9798-7

Keywords: oil companies, action anthropology, environment, habitat destruction, resistence

 

##”Fossil fuels, oil companies, and indigenous peoples” is a study of oil production that focuses on the places from which oil is extracted, and on the problems, both environmental and human, created in those places. Global public awareness of the devastating impact of oil extraction on local communities has grown considerably in recent years, due in large part to Ken Saro-Wiwa's work on behalf of the Ogoni in south-eastern Nigeria and his death in 1995 at the hands of Nigeria's military dictatorship. This volume consists of eight case-studies, all of them attempting to answer these questions: What can indigenous people do when faced with the destruction of their natural and social habitats? And how do oil companies respond to the various forms of local and indigenous resistance to their activities? The eight case studies deal with oil-producing regions in Alaska, Ecuador, Venezuela, Peru, Colombia, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea andwest Siberia and encompass 18 indigenous population groups.##

 

 

 

HINZ, MANFRED O. & THOMAS GATTER (Eds.)

Global responsibility - local agenda. The legitimacy of modern self-determination and African traditional authority

(Afrikanische Studien 18)

Berlin: Lit Verlag 2006

284 pp., Euro 25.90; ISBN 3-8258-6782-X

Keywords: globalization, local and global, responsibility and globalization, self-determination, traditional culture and globalization, power and legitimacy, legitimacy and globalization

 

##In various African countries, governments are forced to accept and/or establish decentral structures in order to facilitate ways in which the poor sections of their population might gain influence on and access to development resources. Yet, there is confusion about the role and functioning of such decentral structures as well as about sustainable political approaches to the top down transfer of government power in the context of local agendas. The book highlights major aspects of the legitimacy of local power as presented by modern self-government structures as well as traditional communal authorities. Although the main focus is placed on Southern Africa (Namibia, South Africa, Botswana), examples from other regions (Ghana, Democratic Republic of the Congo) are also put into perspective.

Contributors: B. Benzing, Th. Gatter, G. Hilliges, M. 0. Hinz, H. Kammerer-Grothaus, B. Katjaerua, E. Okupa, N. Olivier, B. Oomen, H. Patemann, D. Quintem, D. Schefold, G. Stuby, G. Tötemeyer, M. Wulfmeyer.##

 

 

 

HOFF, ANSIE

Medicine experts of the /Xam San. The !kwa-ka !gi:ten who controlled the rain and water

(Quellen zur Khoisan-Forschung 19)

Köln: Köppe Verlag 2007

67 pp., Euro 19.80; ISBN 3-89645-147-7

Keywords: /Xam San, San medicine, medicine of San, !kwa-ka !gi:ten, water/rain and San, rain and San

 

Hoff wants to continue work started by the linguists W.H.I. Bleek and L.C. Lloyd in the nineteenth century who had interviewed /Xam individuals “from the Upper Karoo and Bushmanland in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa”. ##The purpose of the research was threefold: to add to the data of /Xam views on water/rain and thereby increase our understanding of /Xam views in this regard, to explain the role of the specialists in connection with it, and to place, in broad outline, the data in the /Xam cosmological framework of a stratified universe. The intention is, in the words of GEERTZ..., to achieve a balance “between setting down the meaning particular social customs have for the actors whose actions they are, and stating, as explicitly as we can manage, what the knowledge thus attained demonstrates about the society in which it is found and, beyond that, about social life as such”.##

 

 

 

 

JUNGRAITHMAYR, HERRMANN

Ein Leben mit afrikanischen Sprachen

Paideuma 52.2006:7-26

Keywords: Jungraithmayr, H.

 

A life with African languages

This is the first part of a detailed autobiographical account from first beginnings (parents etc.) to education, his choice of topics in anthropology and all steps in his anthropological career, up to his Frankfurt years ending in 1996.

 

 

 

KASTNER, KRISTIN

“My baby is my paper!” Familiäre Bindungen nigerianischer Migrantinnen auf dem Weg nach Europa

Afrika Spectrum 42.2007:251-273

Keywords: migrants, family relations of migrants, babies of migrants

 

“My baby is my paper!” Familial relationships of Nigerian female migrants on their way to Europe

##Many young Nigerian women's main reason for migrating to Europe lies in the desire to support their families back home in Nigeria. For those who travel to Europe overland it means being on the road for months or even several years. In this transitional stage, new relationships - often highly provisional - develop, and many migrants get pregnant. Although their (unborn) children are often not the result of relationships based on mutual consent nor planned, they nonetheless may play a crucial role in being able to continue the journey: These days they represent a kind of protection and 'papers' and, thereby, reduce the risk for their mothers of being deported. Being mostly single mothers, soon after reaching Europe the young women take on the role of double breadwinners: On the one hand, they have to provide for their children who were born on the road or in the country of destination, on the other hand, they have to support their families in Nigeria. In analysing these new forms of family relationships that span from the country of origin to the transit country and the (provisional) destination country, the author also contributes to research on the dynamics of family structures in the context of migration.##

 

 

 

KELLNER, ALEXANDER

Mit den Mythen denken. Die Mythen der Burji als Ausdrucksformen ihres Habitus

(Ethnologie 29)

Münster: Lit Verlag 2007

442 pp. Euro 34.90; ISBN 3-8258-0051-2

Keywords: Burji, value systems, discourse analysis, interpretation, Bourdieu, P., Cushitic language, myths of Burji, narratives of Burji

 

Thinking with the myths. The myths of the Burji as expressions of their habitus

This book tries to arrive at a deeper understanding of Burji culture (Ethiopia and Kenya) and their value systems through their myths. The myths are not expressly dogmatic regarding their world view but display models of thought that can be interpreted variably. The author shows how a narrative or its situation evokes certain thoughts, and how these structure further cognition or modes of action. Texts that have been recorded in the original language are analyzed according to a method that combines hermeneutic and performative approaches and Bourdieu's theory of practice.

##The basis for analysing the way in which Burji use their myths as a reflexive medium are 16 'myths' or 'historical narratives' which the Burji categorize as mammaahoo. Vatiants of two myth complexes were selected for the analysis: eight variants of the Liban tradition which is about the ethnogenesis of the Burji, and eight variants revolving around the clan (re-)founder Yaayya. Both mythical traditions are still deeply rooted in the minds of the Burji. They can be seen as 'key cultural texts'... of the Burji because they occupy 'a special position' within their culture and have become the 'focus fo multiple realizations'... When Burji 'think with the help of their myths,' they put their reality of life in a larger context and try to understand it by relating it to their transmitted culture and social order set up by the ancestors. Since daily life is transcended in the myth, the latter can give new impetus to everyday practice, inspire ideas on how to practically and cognitively cope with problems and inconsistencies of human existence.##

 

 

 

 

 

 

KETTLITZ, EBERHARDT

Afrikanische Soldaten aus deutscher Sicht seit 1871. Stereotype, Vorurteile, Feindbilder und Rassismus

(Afrika und Europa. Koloniale und postkoloniale Begegnungen 4)

Frankfurt/M.: Lang Verlag 2007

372 pp., Euro 56.50; ISBN 3-631-56048-8

Keywords: soldiers and stereotypes, stereotypes about soldiers, colonialism and stereotypes, racism and soldiers

 

African soldiers from a German perspective since 1871. Stereotypes, prejudice, projections of enemies, and racism

Historically generated judgments about other peoples are one basis for modern everyday racism. Traditional attitudes of this kind are analyzed in this book in the case of French colonial soldiers and Afro-American Gi”s. They function as a reference group for Africans, Afro-Americans, and Afro-Germans. The focus is on ideas Germans had about them, starting from the German-French War in 1870/71 and until now. Patterns of perception discovered by this method are grouped in six stereotypical complexes - adventurous, despised, belittling, sexualizing, ruthless etc., but neutral or positive attitudes are missing. And all of these negative stereotypes hardly vary in the different sections and classes of German society and religious and political groups. The findings also show that these stereotypes exist even today, that is, they prove to be very durable. So, the identification of traditional patterns of perception is an important contribution to researching modern forms of racism.

 

 

 

KLAEGER, GABRIEL

Palastbräuche versus Missionarsrechte: Traditionspluralismus und ange-fochtene Souveränitäten im Konflikt um das Ohum-Festival in Kyebi (Ghana)

Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 132.2007:91-108

Keywords: tradition, law, legitimacy, chieftaincy, Christianity, revitalization, Akyem Abuakwa kingdom, Presbyterian Church, normative practice, Ohum Festival, Basel missionaries

 

##Palace customs versus missionary rights: Contesting plural traditions and souvereignties during the Ohum festival controversy in Kyebi (Ghana)

Palace customs and missionary rights are at the core of what can be discerned as a revitalisation of tradition in Kyebi, the capital of the Akyem Abuakwa kingdom in southern Ghana. Both have been subject to fervent debates between the local chiefs' palace and the Presbyterian Church and were labelled by the institutions as their respective tradition. Claimed as a set of legal instruments and normative practices, the two traditions were displayed in a conflict which surrounded the celebration of the Ohum festival and the implementation of particular regulations by the palace. The latter was strongly objected by the church which saw her legal immunity seriously breached, one allegedly gained by the Basel missionaries for the early Kyebi Christians. Both, palace and church, are therefore caught in a sort of traditional pluralism creating a framework in which sovereignties are challenged and discursively negotiated. In this article, I lay out the particularities of this framework of pluralistic traditions in Kyebi, nourished by historically rooted and reoccurring debates on rights, regulations, practices and their legitimacy. In particular, analysing the multiple claims for power reveals how tradition is subject to quite differing agendas just when institutional boundaries, loyalties and dogmas are at stake.##

 

 

 

KLAEGER, GABRIEL

Kirche und Königspalast im Konflikt. Christenviertel und Tradition in den Debatten zum Ohum-Festival in Kyebi (Ghana)

(Ethnologie 26)

Berlin: Lit Verlag 2007

137 pp., Euro 19.90; ISBN 3-8258-9725-3

Keywords: kingship and religion, religion and kingship, Ohum festival, Christianity in Africa, Presbytarianism, Homowo conflict, Drums War, traditionalists vs. Christians

 

Church and king”s palace in conflict. The Christian quarter and tradition in the debates on the Ohum festival in Kyebi, Ghana

Klaeger focuses on the position of the Christian neighborhood in relation to other sections and the close interrelationship of religious, political, and juridical dimensions. The Ohum festival (a festival commemorating first settlement, wars, mark the yams harvest, purifying and renewing the traditional state) conflict was triggered by the Homowo conflict in Accra, and debates then also took place in small-town Kyebi. There were violent assaults because of the drum noise, and Christian churches were asked to reduce the noise and limit the drumming to indoors. Klaeger discusses theological, historical, and anthropological approaches to deal with this situation and describes the Christian neighborhood between church and palace, and neighborhood realities in the face of status ascription, and finally reflects on a pluralism of traditions.

 

 

 

KLEIN, THAMAR

Selecting therapies in Benin: making choices between informal, formal, private and public health services

Afrika Spectrum 42.2007:461-481

Keywords: health care (Benin), gender and health care

 

##This paper addresses a distinctive feature in Benin's health care system. Even though the latest figures state that 83% of the population have access to governmental health facilities, only 36% of the population make use of them. Thus governmental health facilities are extremely under-utilized. Where does this rejecting attitude come from and what kinds of health institutions are used instead? The present study explores this peculiarity and analyses the criteria for therapeutic itineraries in central Benin. A gendered focus shifts the evidence from 'the' Beninese population to gendered perspectives of male and female residents. The findings are based on 22 months of qualitative fieldwork and a large quantitative database obtained from 839 participants in central Benin.##

 

 

 

KOHL, INES

Tuareg in Libyen. Identitäten zwischen Grenzen

Berlin: Reimer Verlag 2007

245 pp., Euro 35,-; ISBN 3-496-02799-7

Keywords: Touareg, Imajeghs, belonging, norms, values, identity, schools, state ideology, marriage, socialization, smuggling, migration, borderland

 

Touareg in Libya. Identities between borders

Kohl defines her book as a study in social anthropology that presents, strategies of belonging, shows how Touareg deal with state power, and explains the role of territorial and sociocultural borders or delimitations. The focus is on norms and values of Libyan identity and analyzes the institution of the school as the mediator of state ideology. Also, marriage practices are described as an indicator of informal socialization, and the transregional space of trade, smuggling, and migration as the result of transgressing state loyalty. After commenting on the fieldwork situation Kohl goes into ethnographic aspects: history, setting, tribe and state, identity constructions since 1969, and “normative implications”: school, national state, marriage - and socialization. The next chapter deals with “peripheral transgressions” meaning outside influence (of neighboring states/cultures) and the influx of modernity, and a reflection of “borderland” follows. The analysis of the data discusses strategies of belonging/identity, and then some accounts of cities. The appendix supplies various sources of interest to the topic of the book. The book is profusely illustrated with aesthetic photographs.

 

 

 

KRÄMER, MARIO

Violence as routine. Transformations of local-level politics in KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa)

(Siegener Beiträge zur Soziologie 8)

Köln: Köppe Verlag 2007

310 pp., Euro 24.80; ISBN 3-89645-728-8

Keywords: violence in Africa, Zulus, local politics (KwaZulu Natal), politics and violence

 

##Despite the claims of political leaders KwaZulu-Natal remained a violent place after the democratic transition in 1994. Based on thorough field research, the social anthropologist Krämer argues that the continuing violence in KwaZulu-Natal is rooted in local institutions and power relations which create selfsustaining dynamics of violent conflict...

Chapter I defines central terms, explores various theoretical approaches on violent conflict and presents the main arguments. Chapter 2 gives a short historical background on political, social and cultural processes in KwaZulu-Natal and the wider Inchanga area since the late 19th century. Chapters 3 and 4 deal with violent conflict before 1994: the former explores the origins and initial stages of violent conflict in Inchanga and KwaZulu-Natal, the latter illustrates that violent conflict continued in the transition period and significant changes in the local power structure and institutions came to the fore which contributed to the perpetuation of violent conflict in the years to come... Chapter 5 elaborates on the most important economic, social, cultural and political aspects in Inchanga after 1994. Chapter 6... explores both the dynamics of violence as well as the peace processes in the post-apartheid era, predominantly on the local but also on the provincial level. Whereas Chapter 6 is more of a descriptive nature, Chapters 7 and 8 are explicitly analytical. Chapter 7 examines insiders' perspectives on the causes of local violent action in the post-apartheid era. Chapter 8 first analyses the forms and characteristics of violent conflict and subsequently (and most significantly) relates the main empirical results to the main arguments (disjunction and violence as routine) introduced in Chapter 1. In the Conclusion, I finally discuss the state of the (South African) state, the rise of the local and the future of violent conflict in KwaZulu-Natal.##

 

 

 

KRONKE, FRANK

Zugangsprobleme pastoralnomadischer FulBe zum öffentlichen Gesund-heitssystem im Tschad

Curare 30.2007:35-48

Keywords: veterinary anthropology, public health, Fulbe, nomads, pastoralists” health, health perception

 

##Difficulties of Access of Pastoral Nomadic FulBe to the Public Health System in Chad

The health problems of pastoral populations are manifold. Different approaches can be applied. Most commonly, biomedical data are collected, but these explain only a part of the problem. Therefore, social science-based approaches were applied to provide an understanding of the social factors related to illness and to reveal the constraints linked to the improvement of health. Zoonoses are among the special health problems of nomadic pastoralist groups. Their significance must be considered in humans as well as in livestock. Assessing health care demands is often based primarily on public health considerations. Using the approach of focusing on locally relevant priorities, health complaints were discovered that were unnoticed by public health considerations. And little is known about health-seeking behaviour in nomadic pastoralist communities. The determinants of the complex and interlinked process of health-seeking behaviour and user satisfaction are shown.##

 

 

 

LANG, ANDREA M.

Rechtsvakuum durch konkurrierende Verfahrenserwartungen: Die Unerreichbarkeit traditionaler und staatlicher Institutionen in Fällen sexuellen Missbrauchs von Mädchen in den ländlichen Gebieten Südafrikas

Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 132.2007:139-153

Keywords: legal processes, sexual offences, legal dualism, criminal prosecution, South Aftica, traditional law, state law, rape, colonialism

 

##Legal vacuum caused by conflicting expectations about legal processes: the inaccessibility of traditional and state institutions in cases of sexual abuse in rural South Africa

The differences between traditional and state legal systems not only include laws but also expectations about proper procedures, the localization of law and those who can act as middle men and women between the claimant and institutions. How these different expectations on the technicalities and responsibilities in legal processes may hinder reports to the police and cause what is described as a legal vacuum is discussed in the context of sexual violence against girls in rural South Africa. In these cases the lack of acceptable informants, an indigenous protocol of respects that requires to first check the validity of the severity of the crime before passing it on to higher institutions, frustrations about the police in combination with the impossibility to discuss about sexuality with elders lead to a situation where the perpetrator will be punished in only 1 % of all offences. In addition to that the article discusses how the girls were able to negotiate sexual relations as a group in pre-colonial times, how this peer group responsibility was weakened by the colonial government and responsibilities relocated to the father. Finally, the article shows one revival of youth organisation to protect girls from sexual offences in a modern form in North West Province as a possible example of re-vitalising old responsibilities and networks.##

 

 

 

LANGEWIESCHE, KATRIN

Religiöse Mobilität. Konversionen und religiöser Wandel in Burkina Faso

Paideuma 51.2005:7-67-88

Keywords: religious mobility, conversion, change and religion

 

Religious mobility. Conversions and religious change in Burkina Faso

This paper describes some changes in the religious field in Burkina Faso, especially the Yatenga Province. A brief introduction sketches the historical development of religious pluralism since the 1960s. Individual conversions in this context are the focus of this article and the basis of interpretations of changes in the religious field.

 

MARTIN, JEANNETT

Yakubas neues Leben - Zum Wandel der Kindspflegschaftspraxis bei den ländlichen Fée (Mokollé) in Nordbenin

Afrika Spectrum 42.2007:219-249

Keywords: Fée, Mokollé, child care, fostering of children

 

On the change in the practice of fostering of children among the rural Fée (Mokollé) in Northern Benin

##In the settlement region of the Fée in the north east of the Benin Republic, the fostering of children, i.e. allowing them to be brought up not by their biological parents but by relatives such as their grandmother or aunts and uncles, is a very widespread social practice. Affected by the region's social and economic changes this 'traditional' fostering practice is currently undergoing changes. This is most evident in the decrease in the numbers of 'traditional' fostering, but also in the appearance and spread of new forms of fostering accompanied by the multiplication of norm concepts for 'giving children away' and their support; which increasingly gives rise to conflicts. The article examines the aspects of change in this social institution in the rural environment from the end of the 19th century up to now and clarifies some causes of the changes it describes.##

 

 

 

MELBER, HENNING & CHRISTOPHER SAUNDERS

Conflict mediation in decolonisation: Namibia's transition to independence

Afrika Spectrum 42.2007:73-94

Keywords: independence, conflict mediation