Anthropological Abstracts

 

Cultural/Social Anthropology

from German-speaking countries

 

edited by

Ulrich Oberdiek

 

 

 

9.Abstracts of 2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

©Ulrich Oberdiek

Reprint only by written permission of the editor:

Editor@anthropology-online.de

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contents

 

 

 

Editorial                                                                                              7

                                              

 

General/Theoretical/Historical Studies                                                9  

 

 

Regional Studies

 

                            Africa                                                                   67                      

 

                            The Americas                                                       95                      

 

                            Asia                                                                    113                              

 

                            Australia & Oceania                                           161  

 

 

                            Europe                                                                169

 

 

Periodicals Scanned                                                                       193                             

 

Author Index                                                                                  195   

 

 

Subject Index                                                                                  203  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Editorial

 

 

 

This reference journal is published once a year and announces - in English language - most of the new publications in the field of cultural/social anthropology published in the German language area (Austria, Germany, Switzerland). Since many of these publications have been written in German, and most of these publications in the field of anthropology are not included in major, English language abstracting services, Anthropological Abstracts (AA) offers an opportunity and convenient source of information for scholars who do not read German, to become aware of anthropological research and publications in the German-speaking countries. Included are journal articles, monographs, anthologies, exhibition catalogs, yearbooks, etc. Occasionally, publications in English, or French, are included as well if the publisher is less well-known internationally and if it is likely that the publication will not be noticed abroad.

The present internet volume of Anthropological Abstracts (www.9) is also represented as Vol. 7.2008, published with Lit Publishers.

 

Some technical remarks

This reference journal uses a flexible approach in representing publications: While in usually abstracts are supplied, for anthologies the Current Contents method is applied, i.e. only authors and titles are printed. So technically, this is a combined approach: an Abstracting Reference Journal, and the Current Contents method of listing names and titles only. However, the complete material, including those papers which appear by title only, has been thoroughly indexed.

Abstracts supplied by authors are marked by ## before and after the abstract. Due to space limitations they may be abbreviated. Up to three editors of an anthology will be listed; if there are more, only the first will appear (added by ,et al.).

Only those papers in journals will be abstracted that are relevant to cultural/social anthropology - which mainly applies in the case of interdisciplinary, or predominantly sociological journals. AA also tries to cover subjects related to, or influencing, anthropology, i.e. if they are relevant for present discourses. Thus, there may be material from history, folklore studies, linguistics, sociology, philosophy, etc., if there is an intersection with present debates in anthropology.

Keywords serve as an "abstract of the abstract" - for a quick assessment of the contents. Page numbers in the Subject Index refer to the page where the Keywords  listings appear.

Terms of the Subject Index - which is identical with the Keywords in alphabetical order - do not follow the Thesaurus principle but are chosen rather loosely and generously, according to need, and there is no strict formal rule to limit their number. In many cases, Subject Index terms try to be specific rather than general, in order to reduce the time of searching. Thus, if there is a topic relating to “history”, it will be specified like “history (Guinea”, or “history and literacy”, so that users do not have to check all “history” entries.

Regarding alphabetical order, the German Umlaut (ä, ö, ü) will be broken up into ae, oe, ue in the text, but is disregarded in the indexes.

 

The publishers, museums and research institutions must be thanked for their generally prompt deliveries of the books requested for Anthropological Abstracts.

 

 

 

 

PD Dr. Ulrich Oberdiek:

Institut für Ethnologie, Ruprecht-Karls-

Universität Heidelberg, Germany -

and:

Institut für Ethnologie und Afrikanistik (Department für Kulturwissenschaften und Altertumskunde), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München, Germany.

 

Contact:

Quäkerst. 7

79102 Freiburg/Germany

Phone+Fax: Germany:  0761/70 72 344

e-mail: Ulrich.Oberdiek@t-online.de


 

 

 

 

 

GENERAL/THEORETICAL/HISTORICAL STUDIES

 

 

 

ALLGAYER-KAUFMANN, REGINE & MICHAEL WEBER (Eds.)

African perspectives: Pre-colonial history, anthropology, and ethnomusi-cology

(Vergleichende Musikwissenschaft 5)

Frankfurt/M.: Lang Verlag 2008

370 pp., Euro 56.50; ISBN 3-631-56503-2

Keywords: ethnomusicology, music and pre-colonial history, Kubik, G., pre-colonial history and music, dance, Luchazi, Chiyao, initiation, art in music, classical music, Woi epic, Kpelle, Fante, colonialism, Shawasha

 

##On the occasion of Gerhard Kubik's 70th birthday scholars from most diverse disciplines and different cultures were invited to take part in an international symposium. This symposium was held at the Institute of Musicology of the University of Vienna in December 2004. The participants whose lectures are published in this book, came from various European countries and the USA, as well as from Japan and Africa. The symposium was dedicated to the work of Gerhard Kubik. The scholar who was born in Vienna, is one of the leading and most estimated ethnomusicologists of our time. His diversified cultural approach and his decidedly intra-cultural working method have always met with highest international approval. In the course of the past four decades Gerhard Kubik has undertaken extended field research every year which up to now has led him to eighteen African countries, to Brazil and the USA. African Perspectives presents the scientific results of his friends and colleagues as well as the research activities of Gerhard Kubik.##

MALAMUSI, MOYA ALIYA: Akaning'a and his travels

HOPKINS, DONALD: Chicago Smallpox in history. A contribution to pre-colonial history in Africa

ADAMO, GIORGIO: Music - body - movement. An "African" perspective applied to the analysis of South Italian dances

SSEMPEKE, ALBERT: Autobiographical note by a court musician

SEKINTU, SARAH: Buganda's history according to oral tradition

MALAMUSI, MALIYA MOYA: Zopeka ndi zochitika - Fiction and non-fiction

KACHINYEKA, KAYOMBO: Konkha vya vanda - Search for the Hidden. Luchazi culture in historical perspective

YOTAMU, MOSES: Chiyao Chieftainship and Initiation Ceremonies. A field report from Chief Makanjila's village, Lake Malawi

GUEDES, PANCHO: Lomwe initiation masks. Description of seven examples from the collection of Dori and Pancho Guedes with an introduction

MALAMUSI, MOYA ALIYA: Musical bows in South-East Africa

UMBIMA, WILLIAM: Art in music: Eastern, Central, and Southern Africa

GLASSER, STANLEY: The condition of decay in contemporary West European "classical" music

SIMON, ARTUR: Nubian music in the Northern Sudan and the Southern Egypt. Research and recordings from 1973 and 2003

EVANS, DAVID: Patterns of reinterpretation in African-American music of the United States

ALBRECHT, THEODORE: African, autobiographical, and earlier operatic elements in Scott Joplin's Treemonisha

STONE, RUTH M.: Inscribing history and culture in the Woi epic. Migration of the Kpelle people, performance, and the Kingdom of Mali

TSUKADA, KENICHI: Asafo and fontomfrom as indices of social sentiments among the Fante (Ghana)

NURSE, GEORGE T.: Pre-colonial colonialism in Central and Southern Africa

FORTUNE, GEORGE: Aspects of life among the Shawasha of pre-Rhodesian days. A selection from a manuscript by Simon Tawoneyi

STRUMPF, MITCHEL: African music history until the start of Independence and the history of some other world music traditions: a design for a course of study of African history, anthropology, and ethnomusicology

 

 

 

BAHADIR, SEBNEM

Das Theater des Dolmetschens: Beobachten, Teilnehmen, Proben, Darstellen, Verändern

Curare 31.2008:176-186

Keywords: interpreting, agency, interpreters” training, translation, empathy, body, communication

 

##The Theatre of Interpreting: Observing, Participating, Rehearsing, Enacting, Changing

When interpreters act as intercultural mediators between representatives of medical institutions and migrants, they take high responsibility: They have to enable communication in situations characterized by great imbalance power. Within this hierarchical structure of relationships interpreters are not invisible and uninvolved agents. They are right in the middle of the event - as professionals who represent a third party with their own cultural, social and personal identities. This paper sketches the framing of a methodology for training interpreters which is based on an action-oriented perspective from translation studies and connects with approaches from theatre pedagogy, anthropology and sociology. The point of departure is the concept of interpreting as action involving the whole body in a situation, which can be taught and learnt by way of enactments. The aim is to develop a professional identity, sensitizing interpreters for the nonverbal, verbal and situational dynamics in communication and the cultural, social and political imbalance of power in medical settings, and at the same time empowering interpreters to act ethically, i.e. with empathy and responsibility as a third party.##

 

 

 

BECK, ULRICH

Die Neuvermessung der Ungleichheit unter den Menschen: Soziologische Aufklärung im 21. Jahrhundert. Eröffnungsvortrag zum Soziologentag “Unsichere Zeiten” am 6. Oktober 2008 in Jena

Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp Verlag 2008

58 pp., Euro 7,-; ISBN 3-518-06994-3

Keywords: inequality, enlightening sociology, cosmopolitization, globalization, borders, renationalization

 

The Re-measurement of inequality among humans: Sociological enlightenment in the 21st century. Inaugural speech at the German Sociological Conference “Insecure times” on October 2008, Jena, Germany

Beck pleads for a new sociological perspective - now, that the second century of sociology begins: It should be a cosmopolitan sociology which does not start by introducing (western) abstractions, such as “world society”“world system”, or “autonomous individual” - i.e., it should not be a universalist one.

 

 

 

BEER, BETTINA (Ed.)

Methoden ethnologischer Feldforschung. 2. Auflage

Berlin: Reimer Verlag 2008

324 pp., Euro 24.90; ISBN 3-496-02818-5

Keywords: fieldwork, textbooks, participant observation, method in anthropology

 

Methods of ethnological fieldwork. 2nd edition

This textbook for students introduces basic knowledge for conducting ethnological fieldwork.

HAUSER-SCHÄUBLIN, BRIGITTA: Teilnehmende Beobachtung [Parti-cipant observation]

PAULI, JULIA: Ethnografischer Zensus [Ethnographic census]

HARDENBERG, ROLAND: Die ,,Genealogische Methode": Eine kriti-sche Einführung [The “Genealogical Method”: A critical introduction]

SENFT, GüNTER: Zur Bedeutung der Sprache für die Feldforschung [The importance of language for fieldwork]

SCHLEHE, JUDITH: Formen qualitativer ethnografischer Interviews [Forms of qualitative ethnographic interviews]

S‚ÖKEFELD, MARTIN: Strukturierte Interviews und Fragebögen [Structured interviews and questionnaires]

BEER, BETTINA: Systematische Beobachtung [Systematic observation]

R‚ÖSSLER, MARTIN: Die Extended-Case-Methode [The Extended Case Method]

SCHNEGG, MICHAEL: Die ethnologische Netzwerkanalyse [Ethnolo-gical network analysis]

ANTWEILER, CHRISTOPH: Kognitive Methoden [Cognitive methods]

KECK, VERENA: Interdisziplinäre Projekte und Teamarbeit [Interdisci-plinary projects and teamwork]

KEIFENHEIM, BARBARA: Der Einsatz von Film und Video [Using film and video]

FISCHER, HANS: Dokumentation [Documentation]

 

 

 

BELLIGER, ANDREA & DAVID J. KRIEGER (Eds.)

Ritualtheorien. Ein einführendes Handbuch. 4. Auflage

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2008

483 pp., Euro 39.90; ISBN 3-531-16109-9

Keywords: ritual theory, theories of ritual, religion and ritual, secular ritual, performance and ritual, power and ritual, feminism and ritual, women and ritual, theater and ritual, liminality, communitas

Ritual theories. An introductory handbook. 4th ed.

This handbook presents a collection of classical articles on ritual, all translated into German - by Catherine Bell, A. Bergesen, Mary Douglas, C. Geertz, R. Grimes, C. Humphrey & J. Laidlaw, T.W. Jennings, J. Platvoet, R.A. Rappaport, J.Z. Smith, S.J. Tambiah, V. Turner, G.T. Goethals, C. Bromberger, E. Goffman, R.F. Hardin, D.I. Kertzer, L.A. Northup, R. Schechner, P. Vandermeersch, P.A. Winn. The book has an extensive index, too. The articles are divided under the following headings: General ritual theories, and specific concrete ones (ritual action in various walks of  culture and society - such as politics, psychotherapy, art, sports, media, literature, theater, law, and feminism. There is a comprehensive introduction (30 pages).

 

 

 

BINDER, BEATE, DAGMAR NEULAND-KITZEROW & KAROLINE NOACK (Eds.)

Kunst und Ethnographie. Zum Verhältnis von visueller Kultur und ethnographischem Arbeiten

(Berliner Blätter. Ethnographische und ethnologische Beiträge 46.2008)

Münster: Lit Verlag 2008

203 pp., Euro 19.90; ISBN 3-8258-1552-3

Keywords: visual anthropology, Folklore studies, European ethnology, ethnography, museology, photography and ethnography

 

Art and ethnography. The relationship of visual culture and ethnographic work

The 18 contributions in this volume are based on a meeting of the “Gesellschaft für Ethnographie e.V.”, the Institute for European Ethnology in Berlin and two Berlin museums. Nine contributions deal with methodological and theoretical questions - specifically photography and ethnography. Another section discusses the city, urbanity, as a field for visual anthropology, and finally four papers are devoted to “representation” in respect to visual anthropology, i.e. exhibiting the results in museums etc.

 

 

 

BORIS, DIETER ET AL. (Eds.)

Sozialstrukturen in Lateinamerika. Ein überblick

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2008

339 pp., Euro 29.90; ISBN 3-531-15769-6

Keywords: social structure, technocracy, workers, urban workers, protest, periphery, migration, neoliberalism, globalization

 

Social structures in Latin Ameria. An overview

BORIS, DIETER: Sozialstrukturen in Lateinamerika [Social structures in Latin America]

SVAMPA, MARISTELLA: Kontinuitäten und Brüche in den herrschenden Sektoren [Continuities and breaks in ruling sectors]

SILVA, PATRICIO: Die Technokratie in der chilenischen Politik [Technocracy in Chilean politics]

KESSLER, GABRIEL & MARIA MERCEDES DI VIRGILIO: "Neue Armut" und Mittelschichten in Lateinamerika und Argentinien [“New poverty” and the middle classes in Latin America and Argentina]

ZAPATA, FRANCISCO: Entwicklung und Transfonnation der städtischen ArbeiterInnenklasse [Development and transformation of the urban workers” class]

BAYON, MARIA CRISTINA: Konturen des informellen Sektors in Mexiko und Argentinien [Contours of the informal sector in Mexico and Argentina]

HITE, AMY BELLONE & JOCELYN S. VITERNA: Sozialstruktur-veränderungen und ihre Auswirkungen auf die Geschlechterverhältnisse [Social structural changes and their effects on gender relations]

ESCARZAGA, FABIOLA: Unterschiedliche Protestformen indigener Sektoren: Ein Vergleich [Different forms of protest of indigenous sectors. A comparison]

COMISION ECONOMICA PARA AMERICA LATINA Y EL CARIBE (CEPAL): Die gesellschaftliche Situation der Jugend: Spannungen und Widersprüche [The social situation of young people: Tensions and contradictions]

ANDRADE-EEKHOFF, KATHERINE: Die Globalisierung der Peripherie: transnationale Migration und ihre lokalen Auswirkungen in Zentralamerika

PARNREITER, CHRISTOPH: Vom "urban bias" zu "anti-urban" Struktur-anpassungsprogrammen: Stadtentwicklung in Lateinamerika seit Ende der importsubstituierenden Industrialisierung

KAY, CRISTOBAL: Veränderungen der ländlichen Wirtschafts- und Sozialstrukturen im Zuge der neoliberalen Globalisierung

BORIS, DIETER et al.: Sozialstrukturtendenzen und politische Arti-kulation in Lateinamerika. Schlussfolgerungen, Thesen, Reflexionen

 

 

 

BICHLER, REINHOLD

Historiographie - Ethnographie - Utopie. Gesammelte Schriften, Teil 2. Studien zur Utopie und der Imagination fremder Welten. Hg. von ROBERT ROLLINGER

(Philippika. Marburger altertumskundliche Abhandlungen 18,2)

Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag 2008

211 pp., Euro 38,-; ISBN 3-447-05857-5

Keywords: antiquity, Greek-Hellenistic travelogues, travelogues of Greeks, utopia, Orientalism of ancient Greeks, Herodotus, Plato, culture change (ancient Greece)

 

Historiography - ethnography - utopia. Collected writings, part 2. Studies in utopia and the imagination of alien worlds. Ed. By Robert Rollinger

The eleven articles of this volume deal with social/cultural processes and societal change in antiquity, the “Greek-Hellenistic world”, particularly with ideas of utopia, but also with the perception of the “Orient” by Greek authors in archaic and early classical times, first contacts with the New World in classical Greek literature and the description of phantastic architectural constructions of “Asiatic” despots in Herodotus, Ktesias and Plato. Other papers deal with travelogues and legitimizing strategies, i.e., how the authors make their phantastic descriptions credible and plausible.

 

 

 

BRENNER, CARENA

Umkehrung der Macht? Film als Kritik am Film

Tsantsa 13.2008:98-105

Keywords: reverse anthropology, cultural studies, Rouch, J., representation, colonialism, post-colonialism, visual anthropology, metanarratives

 

##Inversion of Power? Filmic Representations as a Critique of Represen-tation

Since the formal end of the European colonial hegemony, the discipline of anthropology has found itself confronted with a number of unresolved problems concerning not only conventional ethnographic methods but also global systems of domination. The colonial process deeply altered colonial societies and restructured contemporary realities; transnationalism and global migration challenge the construction of fixed cultural and racial differences and thus undermine simple binary oppositions. Manthia Diawara's film Rouch in Reverse can therefore be understood as an attempt to abandon the “grand narratives” and to undercut the discourses concerning the powerful and the disempowered. With his “Reverse Anthropology”, Diawara wants to challenge the images that come “straight out of the textbooks of my francophone upbringing in Africa” revealing predetermined categories and concepts of identity. In this sense, as Gupta and Ferguson (1997: 47) point out, “changing the way we think about the relations of culture, power, and space opens the possibility of changing more than our [anthropological] texts”.##

 

 

 

BRINKEL, TERESA

Forschende im Fokus. Zu den Potentialen und Problemen der Wissensforschung in den Kulturwissenschaften

Anthropos 103.2008:527-539

Keywords: cultural anthropology, research up, Folklore studies, oral history, qualitative methods, reflexive anthropology

 

Focus on researchers. On the potentials and problems of knowledge research in the cultural sciences

##The article deals with potentials and problems concerning scholarly research of the discipline of cultural anthropology. It has rarely been practiced by scholars to examine their own disciplinary culture and the youngest history of their field, despite the meaningful chances arising from such a research. One conflict, for example, may be caused by methodological problems during oral history interviews with actors of the field. Reflecting her own methodological experiences the author discusses problems such as the "research-up" situation, the question of professionalism and consequences of publication. She analyzes why researching one's own field's history demands a distinguished and self-reflective approach. Furthermore the article introduces ways and possibilities how to deal with such problems.##

 

 

 

BRULAND, HANSJ‚ÖRG

Wilde Kinder in der Frühen Neuzeit. Geschichten von der Natur des Menschen

Stuttgart: Steiner Verlag 2008

509 pp., Euro 49,-; ISBN 3-515-09154-1

Keywords: feral children, wild men, wolf children, apeman, beast children

 

Feral children in Early Modernity. Stories about the nature of man

“Wild children” have become a focal point of Enlightenment thought, of the press and scholarly literature of the 18th and early 19th centuries. Bruland presents, comprehensively and on an encyclopedic scale, the primary and secondary Western literature on feral (“quadrupedal”) children which has dealt with this phenomenon globally, a literature that had been influenced by texts of J.J. Rousseau, Condillac, Linné, and D. Defoe.

The author traces beginnings and course of this “long and winding” road, and the reception and scientific utilization of cases, especially the natural-historical processing of the phenomenon in the German-language area - e.g. through Schreber, Zimmermann, Blumenbach, Herder, Kant. Bruland traces and documents these “risky” theories, adventurous courses of thought, heated debates, and frequently scholarly self-deception.

 

 

 

BUDE, HEINZ & ANDREAS WILLISCH (Eds.)

Exklusion. Die Debatte über die “überflüssigen”

(Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft 1819)

Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp Verlag 2008

335 pp., Euro 12,-; ISBN 3-518-29419-2

Keywords: “superfluous” people, affluent society, Wacquant, L., poverty, middle classes, class society, exclusion, inclusion, social exclusion, integration, welfare state

 

Exclusion. The debate on the “superfluous”ones

Present perception in (western) society has shifted to differentiating between “included” and “excluded”, between those who are able to participate in the “race”, and those who can”t, or don”t. This results in a division between those who profit from societal changes, and those who don”t. The notion of exclusion creates a connection between the fringes and the center of society: What used to be a fringe phenomenon has reached the center of society, the middle classes. The “superfluous”, excluded people, do not have a traditional place any more, but only one common fate.

BUDE, HEINZ & ANDREAS WILLISCH: Die Debatte über die “überflüssigen”. Einleitung [The debate on the “superfluous”ones. Introduction]

WILLISCH, ANDREAS: Drogen am Etchberg oder Feuer im Ausländerheim [Drugs at the Etchberg, Or: Fire in the Asylum seekers” Home]

WILLISCH, ANDREAS: Verwundbarkeit und Marginalisierungsprozesse [Vulnerability and marginalization processes]

CASTEL, ROBERT: Die Fallstricke des Exklusionsbegriffs [Pitfalls of the notion of exclusion]

NEWMAN, KATHERINE S.: Kummervolle Zeiten [Sad times]

HILLMANN, FELICITAS: Eine überfällige Diskussion [An overdue discussion]

STEINERT, HEINZ: Die Diagnostik der überflüssigen [Diagnostics of the superfluous ones]

NASSEHI, ARMIN: Exklusion als soziologischer oder sozialpolitischer Begriff? [Exclusion as a sociological and socio-political notion?]

OSWALD, INGRID: Mittelschichtsvorbehalte [Reservations of the middle classes]

DANGSCHAT, JENS S.: Exclusion - The New American Way of Life?

KRONAUER, MARTIN: Plädoyer für ein Exklusionsverständnis ohne Fallstricke [Pleading for an understanding of exclusion without pitfalls]

VOGEL, BERTHOLD: überflüssige in der überflussgesellschaft? [Superfluous people in affluent society?]

LAPEYRONNIE, DIDIER: Die Ordnung des Formlosen [The order of the formless]

SCHROER, MARKUS: Die im Dunkeln sieht man doch. Inklusion, Exklusion und die Entdeckung der überflüssigen [Inclusion, exclusion, and the discovery of the superfluous ones]

IMBUSCH, PETER: “überflüssige”. Historische Deutungsmuster und potentielle Universalität eines Begriffs [“Superfluous ones”. Historical frames of interpretation and potential universality of a notion]

WACQUANT, LOIC: Armut als Delikt. Ein Gespräch mit Lo‚Ä¢c Wacquant [Poverty as a delict. A conversation with Lo‚Ä¢c Wacquant]

WEIß, ANJA: Raumrelationen als zentraler Aspekt weltweiter Ungleich-heiten [Space relations as a central aspect of worldwide inequalities]

BUDE, HEINZ: Das Phänomen der Exklusion [The phenomenon of exclusion]

CALLIES, OLIVER: Konturen sozialer Exklusion [Contours of social exclusion]

VOGEL, BERTHOLD: Der Nachmittag des Wohlfahrtsstaats [The “afternoon” of the welfare state]

WILLISCH, ANDREAS: Die paradoxen Folgen mechanischer Integration [The paradox results of mechanistic integration]

 

 

 

 

 

BURRI, REGULA VALERIE

Bilder als soziale Praxis: Grundlegungen einer Soziologie des Visuellen

Zeitschrift für Soziologie 37.2008:342-358

Keywords: visual sociology, practice and visual logic, medical imaging, sociology of visual

 

##Images as Social Practice: Outline of a Sociology of the Visual

(Post-)modern societies can be understood as "visual cultures." Despite the ubiquity of images in social life, social theorists have, to date, paid little attention to images and "the visual." This paper aims to outline what can be understood as a sociology of the visual. It suggests two new concepts - "visual logic" and "visual rationality" - to analyze imaging practices from a sociological perspective. By drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in the area of medical imaging, the paper shows how these concepts serve as analytical tools to explore and understand imaging practices in medicine.##

 

 

 

BUTTERWEGGE, CHRISTOPH, BETTINA L‚ÖSCH & RALF PTAK

Kritik des Neoliberalismus. 2., verbesserte Auflage

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2008

298 pp., Euro 12.90; ISBN 3-531-15809-9

Keywords: neoliberalism, state and neoliberalism, critique of neoliberalism, globalization and neoliberalism

 

Critique of neoliberalism. 2., enlarged ed.

Since neo-liberalism has become a field of research for anthropologists (David Harvey, etc.) in the course of studying globalization, transnationalism and connected political and economic issues of dominance it is worthwhile to consider bordering analyses of neoliberalism, as in the case of the present economists, especially because they also focus on society and the image of man in neoliberalism, i.e. sociological, or anthropological perspectives. This analysis includes a description of the strategies to remove power from public space (or the state and its traditional functions), justification for these moves, and consequences of neoliberal (social) politics - for the welfare state and its changing structure due to neoliberal influence. The last part of the book describes dangers for democracy because of “neoliberal hegemony”.

 

 

 

CAPPAI, GABRIELE

Kultur und Methode. über die Relevanz rekonstruktiver Verfahren für die Erforschung fremdkultureller Lagen

Sociologia Internationalis 46.2008:131-160

Keywords: otherness, alterity, reconstructive methods

 

Culture and method: On the relevance of reconstructive methods for researching other cultural settings

##The western tradition of social science could develop adequate instruments for the research in foreign cultures to the extent to which it was able to describe und explain otherness inside the own society. Among the methods of the social sciences, especially “reconstructive methods" are particularly fitted for researching cultural otherness because they seem to be well adapted against the tendency to assimilate difference too quickly. Reconstructive methods are more able than other methods to render account for the conviction that one has to listen to the “language of the case" when one intends to describe it, to grasp it typologically or to explain it. The appropriateness of reconstructive methods for research in foreign cultural settings is a question that can not be answered in a general manner. However, much depends on whether, and to what extent, the different members of the "family" (in Wittgenstein's sense) have adopted precautions to defend themselves from the danger of ethnocentrism.##

 

 

 

DIPPNER, ANETT

Die Entdeckung der kommunikativen Vernunft. Habermas und die Rezeption der Frankfurter Schule in China

Sociologia Internationalis 46.2008:217-236

Keywords: communicative reason, Habermas, J., Frankfurt School, neo-marxist philosophy, public sphere, Adorno, T.W., Horkheimer M., modernity, Critical Theory

 

Discovering communicative reason. Habermas and the reception of the Frankfurt School in China

##After the beginning of the reform period Chinese scientists were able to learn about research results form the Western world. From the late 1970s and early 1980s on, the works of the Frankfurt School were met with special interest, mainly because of their critical contents regarding politics and society, which became a useful tool to criticize new market reform-based changes in Chinese society. But the understanding of the Critical Theory as neo-marxist philosophy (as which it was categorized in China) passed off quite selective: Horkheimer and Adorno, for instance, are in China considered as representatives for cultural critique while Habermas is mostly known for his concept of public sphere und his theory on modernity But in using only those components subservient to the perspective needs of the Chinese academic discourse lies the inherent danger of ignoring the true potential of the Critical Theory for the benefit of local inter-pretations.##

 

 

 

EICKELPASCH, ROLF, CLAUDIA RADEMACHER & PHILIPP RAMOS LOBATO (Eds.)

Metamorphosen des Kapitalismus - und seiner Kritik

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2008

254 pp., Euro 24.90; ISBN 3-531-15780-1

Keywords: capitalism, critique of capitalism, neoliberalism, inequality, exclusion, precarious employment, employment, poverty, labor market, resistence

 

Metamorphoses of capitalism - and its critique

This book goes back to a research colloquium at the University of Muenster; they show discursive changes in the analysis of capitalism dealing with the “neoliberal” transformation.

SCHULTHEIS, FRANZ: What's left? Von der Desorientierung zur selbstreflexiven Standortbestimmung linker Gesellschaftskritik [From desorientation to self-reflexive definition of leftist social criticism]

KüNKLER, TOBIAS: Produktivkraft Kritik. Die Subsumtion der Subversion im neuen Kapitalismus [The productive power of criticism. The subsumation of subversion in new capitalism]

PRIESTER, KARIN: Messianischer Populismus von links? Anmerkungen zu dem Werk Empire von Michael Hardt und Antonio Negri [Leftist messianic populism? Remarks on Empire, by Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri]

KLUGE, SVEN: Affirmativer Protest - Ambivalenzen und Affinitäten der kommunitaristischen Kapitalismuskritik [Affirmative protest - Ambiva-lence and affinities of the communitarian critique of capitalism]

HAUG, FRIGGA: “Schaffen wir einen neuen Menschentyp” - Von Ford zu Hartz [“Let”s create a new type of man” - From Ford to Hartz]

VOGEL, BERTOLD: Die Begriffe und das Vokabular sozialer Ungleichheit in Zeiten ihrer Verschärfung [The notions and the vocabulary of social inequality in the times of their intensification]

KRAEMER, KLAUS: Alles prekär? Die Prekarisierungsdebatte auf dem soziologischen Prüfstand [The debate of precariousness sociologically tested]

RADEMACHER, CLAUDIA & PHILIPP RAMOS LOBATO: “Teufelskreis oder Glücksspirale?” Ungleiche Bewältigung unsicherer Beschäftigung [The unequal coping with precarious employment]

GROH-SAMBERG, OLAF: Armut, soziale Ungleichheit und die Perspektiven einer “Erneuerung der Sozialkritik” [Poverty, social inequality and perspectives of a “renewal of social criticism”]

REUTER, ENRICO: Weniger ist mehr - Plädoyer für einen exklusiven Exklusionsbegriff [Arguing for an exclusive notion of exclusion]

PELIZZARI, ALESSANDRO: Widerständiges Prekariat? Probleme der Interessenvertretung in fragmentierten Arbeitsmärkten [Resisting pre-carious job situations? Problems of representing interests in fragmented job markets]

NICKEL, HILDEGARD-MARIA & HASKO HüNING: Frauen an die Spitze? Zur Repolitisierung der Arbeits- und Geschlechterdebatte [Women to the top? On the re-politicization of the labor and gender debate]

TUIDER, ELISABETH: Umarmter Protest. Soziale Bewegungen in Mexiko zwischen diskursiver Vereinnahmung und eigensinniger Wider-ständigkeit [Social movements in Mexico between discursive appropriation and stubborn resistence]

 

 

 

ERDHEIM, MARIO

Theorien als Verarbeitung beunruhigender Erfahrungen: Frobenius und Freud

Paideuma 54.2008:27-39

Keywords: theory, Frobenius, L., Freud, S., psychoanalysis, otherness, alterity, Fabian, J., fieldwork process

 

Theories as overcoming disturbing experiences: Leo Frobenius and Sigmung Freud

Erdheim deals with “unsettling experiences” of the anthropological fieldwork kind - i.e. quasi-psychological processes which he exemplifies in the case of Leo Frobenius, and against the background of psychoanalysis. In the context of J. Fabian”s book on “craziness” in the process of fieldwork Erdheim describes cases of thinkers like Otto Weininger, Paul Schreber “gone wild” - being unable to discern reality and delusion. He further comments on such situations in Freud and Jung, it is “crossing borders” - in the case of anthropologists the exposure to the Other.

 

 

 

FREYLING, SABINE

The sum of no equation

(European university studies. Series XIV Anglo-Saxon language and literature 445)

Frankfurt/M.: Lang Verlag 2008

473 pp., Euro 74.50; ISBN 3-631-57910-7

Keywords: Naipaul, V.S., literary criticism, postcolonialism

 

This book offers a literary criticism of all major works of Naipaul, very much relating to, and dealing with postcolonial situations in India, Trinidad, etc.

##Starting with the social and psychological side of the person Naipaul, one can summarise some reasonably simple discoveries that can be extracted from both his autobiographical pieces and his seemingly fictional books, published within a period of more than fifty years. Naipaul suggested that the way to approach the author is not through finding out as much as possible about the man and one could easily argue that the idea shall simply be used in conversion. One can learn more about the person when taking into account all that has been produced by the author, who is part of the person. By this means, one can extract valuable information about both person and author and thus can easily uncover some mysteries that have been established by the author/person to conceal the reality behind a fixed idea that has always played a significant role in Naipaul's life. Having studied English, Naipaul was aware of all the tools available and of the aims of literary critics and seems to have challenged these established routes for his own sake and to serve his purpose.##

 

 

 

GENGNAGEL, J‚ÖRG, MONIKA HORSTMANN & GERALD SCHWEDLER (Eds.)

Prozessionen, Wallfahrten, Aufmärsche. Bewegung zwischen Religion und Politik in Europa und Asien seit dem Mittelalter

(Menschen und Kulturen 4)

Köln: Böhlau Verlag 2008

444 pp., Euro 54.90; ISBN 3-412-19106-1

Keywords: processions, pilgrimages, marchpasts, medieval pilgrimages, Nanda Devi, memorial culture, performances, rule and performance

 

Processions, pilgrimages, marchpasts. Movement between religion and politics in Europe and Asia from the Middle Ages

This book is result and part of a larger research project at the University of Heidelberg, Ritual Dynamics, a conference that took place in 2005. The events and processes have religious as well as political aspects; they may point to values of a group or may be tools aiming to present their ideas about history and order. They are performances negotiating a “topic” spatially-illustratively as opposed to discursively. Such performances have been instruments of rule par excellence in pre-democratic times and settings.

SCHENK, GERRIT JASPER: Dorthin und wieder zurück. Mittelalterliche Pilgerreisen ins Heilige Land als ritualisierte Bewegung in Raum und Zeit [Medieval pilgrimages to the Holy Land as ritualized motion in time and space]

OESTERLE, JENNY RAHEL: Begangene Herrschaft - beschriebene Prozessionen. Fatimidische, byzantinische und ottonisch-salische Herrscherprozessionen an hohen Festtagen [Fatimid, Byzantine, and Ottoman-Salic processions of rulers on important festival days]

SIGNORI, GABRIELA: Ereignis und Erinnerung: Das Ritual in der städtischen Memorialkultur des ausgehenden Mittelalters (14. und 15. Jahrhundert) [Ritual in urban memorial culture of the late Middle Ages]

SCHWEDLER, GERALD: Prinzipien der Ordnung bei königlichen Prozessionen im späten Mittelalter [Principles of order in late-medieval royal processions]

JUCKER, MICHAEL: In the Heart of the Revolt: The Fall and Execution of late medieval Tyrants as Ritualdynamic Events between Politics and Religion

BOJCOV, MICHAIL A.: Der Schirm des Papstes, der Sonnengott und die historischen Wege Russlands [The umbrella of the pope, the sun god, and historical pathways of Russia]

MAREK, KRISTIN: Politik des heiligen Königs: Die Effigies im englischen Funeralzeremoniell [Politics of the sacred king: The effigies in the British funeral ceremony]

SCHECHTER, RONALD: Jewish Processions in 18th-Century Metz

GENGNAGEL, J‚ÖRG: Bewegungen im Raum anläßlich der Inthronisation Maharaja Pratap Singhs im Fürstentum Jaipur (18. Jahrhunden) [Motion/movements on the occasion of the enthronement of the Maharaja Pratap Singh in the princedom of Jaipur, 18th century]

FRITZ, EBERHARD: Säkulare Jubelfeiern als Religionsersatz? Religiöse und säkulare Rituale am württembergischen Hof unter den Königen Friedrich und Wilhelm 1. (1806-1864) [Secular festivities as a substitute for religion? Religious and secular rituals at the Wurttemberg Court under Friedrich and Wilhelm I. (1806-1864)]

SAX, WILLIAM: From Procession to Heritage: The Royal Procession of the Goddess Shri Nanda

HAUSER-SCHÄUBLIN, BRIGITTA: Ritual, Pilgrimage and the Reconfiguration of the State. Sacred Journeys in the Political Landscape of Ball (Indonesia)

BROSIUS, CHRISTIANE: Parading Violence: The Politics of Spectacle in a Hindu Nationalist Procession

HORSTMANN, MONIKA: An Indian Sacred Journey

DüCKER, BURCKHARD: Politische Rituale als Bewegungen im 6ffentlichen Raum. Der Marsch auf die “Feldherrenhalle' (1923) -,Der Marsch durch Moskau' (1944) [Political rituals as motion in public space. The march towards the Feldherrenhalle” (1923), the march through Moscow (1944)]

DüWEL, J‚ÖRN: Hauptstadt der DDR: Raum für Feiern des Volkes [Capital of the GDR: Space for festivals of the people]

GUTSCHOW, NIELS: Begehungen und Umgehungen - das Durchmessen und die Besetzung von Raum durch Wallfahrten und Prozessionen [Inspections and circumambulations - the striding across and occupation of space through pilgrimages and processions]

 

 

 

GRESHOFF, RAINER

Ohne Akteure geht es nicht! Oder: Warum die Fundamente der Luh-mannschen Sozialtheorie nicht tragen

Zeitschrift für Soziologie 37.2008:450-469

Keywords: Luhmann, N., communication concept, social theory, actors

 

##It will not Work without Actors! Or: Why the Foundations of Luhmann's Social Theory are Unsustainable

The subject of this article is the late social theory of Niklas Luhmann. The analysis of its foundations shows that its claim to have developed a radically different theory in contrast to methodological-individualistic approaches is not tenable. In an analysis of Luhmann”s concept of communication and social system the central concept of selection and the dynamic of social systems is presented in a manner immanent to Luhmann”s writings. That basic figures of argumentation like "the social system produces, observes" etc. are suggestive compact formulas which can only be used in a figurative sense. It is shown why social systems as differentiated entities have no capacity to produce selection. This means that social systems are not distinguishable from psychic systems as Luhmann argues. At the end of the article a short reflection on concepts of methodological-individualistic social theories outlines deficits of Luhmann”s approach for the explanation of social systems.##

 

 

 

GUZY, LIDIA (Ed.)

Religion and music. Proceedings of the interdisciplinary workshop at the Institute for Scientific Studies of Religions, Freie Universität Berlin, May 2006

(Religionen in Kultur und Gesellschaft 1)

Berlin: Weißensee Verlag 2008

155 pp., Euro 26.80; ISBN 3-89998-116-2

Keywords: religion and music, music and religion, Hindu music, Raga music

 

##From the comparative perspective on cultures one can observe that music is used not only in religious adoration and worship but also in rituals of personal and collective crisis. Music as non-verbal religious commu-nication acts as a social form of cultural consolation, commemoration, recollection and the representation of ideas and values as well as a marker of cultural and personal identity. This collected volume aims to formulate impulses for the study of religions, rituals and the aesthetics of religions.##

ZINSER, HARTMUT: Welcoming Address "Religion and Music

WILKE, ANNETTE: Sound and Sense: Sonic Perception in Hindu India

KOCH, LARS-CHRISTIAN: Raga-Music in North India between Religious Meaning and Courtly Culture

PREVOT, NICOLAS: How Musical Is God? A Pantheon and Its Music in Bastar, Central India

GUZY, LIDIA: Thea phony - on Music, Religion and the Goddess in Western Orissa

WEBER, DANIELA: Gospel, Sacro-Pop and White Metal - when the Organ is Jazzing and Rocking. Popular Music in Christian Church Services in Berlin. A Report from Inside

LAACK, ISABEL: The Relation between Music and Religious Meaning. Theoretical Reflections

 

HAHN, HANS PETER

Diffusionism, Appropriation, and Globalization. Some Remarks on Current Debates in Anthropology

Anthropos 103.2008:191-202

Keywords: anthropology discourse, theory of anthropology, globalization, diffusionism

 

##Diffusionism is a long-standing theoretical issue in anthropology. The current research on globalization often shows astonishing similarities between the 19th century understanding of diffusion and the most recent interpretations regarding globally circulating cultural phenomena. These parallels indicate the impact of global influences on local cultures. Instead of adopting a macro perspective that promotes a world map outlook, the author proposes a closer examination of local action in the context of global influences in order to avoid the reemergence of the shortcomings that led to the termination of the 19th century approaches. The focus on the local perspective through study of cultural appropriation appears to be an optimal way to understand the working of globalization on local levels.##

 

 

 

HAIDLE, MIRIAM NOEL

Kognitive und kulturelle Evolution

Erwägen Wissen Ethik 19.2008:149-209

Keywords: evolution, cultural evolution, history, cognitive evolution, phylogenesis, ontogenesis, environment and history, biological evolution, human evolution

 

Cognitive and cultural evolution

##Every biological species has a specific environment which comprises perceivable elements and effects. As factors are included: conspecifics, animate and inanimate objects, their possible relationships, and the time-depth in which the elements are seen as relevant and may interact. Within this environment, which is naturally, cognitively and culturally affected, the cognitive sphere of an organism is formed by three dimensions: the phylogenetic-biological, the ontogenetic-individual, and the cultural-historical. The specific environment affects the characteristics of the dimensions, which are also directly influenced by each other and indirectly through interactions with the environment. The cognitive and cultural evolution of homo is not a progressing adaptation to an independent environment which is the same for every species, but a co-evolution of interdependent specific systems. In particular, the cultural-historical dimension and the specific environment extended each other during human evolution.##

 

 

 

HARTUNG, MARTIN

Das Mueée du Quai Branly in Paris. Grat-Wanderungen durch einen postkolonialen Bildungspark

Cargo. Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 28.2008:58-63

Keywords: museology, Mueée du Quai Branly, postcolonial museums

 

The Mueée du Quai Branly in Paris. Ridge walks through a postcolonial educational park

Hartung comments on the concept of the newly built museum which stresses the art aspect of the exhibited artifacts and reflects on widespread criticism because of the likening of ethnographic artifacts, often everyday life objects, to “masterpieces of art”.

 

 

 

HAUCKE, KAI

Im Labyrinth der Menschwerdung - Luc Boltanskis “Soziologie der Abtreibung". Eine konstruktive Kritik aus der Sicht philosophischer Anthropologie

Sociologia Internationalis 46.2008:183-216

Keywords: Boltanski, L., abortion, philosophical anthropology, capitalism and abortion, procreation and abortion, structuralism, philosophical anthropology, personhood, pregnancy, freedom to abort

 

Luc Boltanski”s “sociology of abortion”. A constructive criticism from the perspective of philosophical anthropology

##Even three decades after its legalization, abortion is still an option which women do not necessarily experience as a constituent of freedom. In his ,La condition foetale: Une sociologie de I'avortement et de 1'engen-drement" (Paris 2004), Boltanski discusses this fact in light of the new kind of capitalism. Morally unjustifiable but tolerated by law, the practice of abortion indicates, according to him, a tension in the process of human procreation, that is, a universal conflict which has become visible only recently, due to abortion's legalization as well as the proliferation of the specifically capitalist culture of the project. Boltanski maintains that abortion is a necessary evil of social anthropogenesis although not legitimizable in moral terms. This essay examines Boltanski's structuralist grammar of “procreation” thoroughly from the perspective of philosophical anthropology, pointing out three shortcomings as a result. Firstly, the moral relevance of corporeality itself which escapes Boltanski's attention; secondly, the lack of a concept of personhood which would allow for grasping the precarious integrity of pregnant women; and thirdly, Boltanski's problematic claim to neutrality with respect to the issue of the foetus as person. However, the reference to philosophical anthropology is also constructive. Insofar as it highlights the anthropological limits of designing one's life as a “project', it reveals not only arguments which support Boltanski's theory, but also illuminates why women still have ambiguous feelings about their freedom to abort.##

 

 

 

HAUSCHILD, THOMAS

Ritual und Gewalt. Ethnologische Studien an europäischen und medi-terranen Gesellschaften

Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp Verlag 2008

258 pp., Euro 24.80; ISBN 3-518-58491-0

Keywords: ritual and violence, violence and ritual, clientelism, organized crime, Mafia, al-Qaeda, traditional societies, globalization, resistance, fundamentalism, occidentalism

 

Ritual and violence. Anthropological studies of European and Mediterranean societies

On the basis of his former studies of Italian societies Hauschild mainly draws on these but also creates a wider perspective by including the ritual (and violent) aspects of other contemporary societies as well, mainly those of the Middle East, thus touching occidentalism. He contemplates the present state of the art in ritual studies by referring to some of them, and also considers the wider theoretical range of general approaches in anthropology or cultural studies by discussing influences and meaning of postmodern influence or the culturalist turn in the 1980s and 1990s (frequently reflecting on the history of anthropology, especially in Germany), or obsolete “classical” approaches like structural-functionalist perspectives, while he considers some of the classical positions, such as analyzing kinship, or network analysis, as quite useful even today (p.220). By way of conclusion Hauschild arrives at a model he calls “reserves” (developing this notion by starting from economics), culturally informed potential for action (i.e., traditional cultural background, norms, values) in the context of globalization - which MAY become active in the face of globalization (glocalization) or NOT - i.e. if people choose not to act, or act in opposition (resistance), etc., which may both be seen as forms of agency. So in this sense “reserve” is a recourse to what was before (traditional background, identities... - or even regression, or escapism.). Analyzing the logic of globally operating groups thus requires local expertise on the groups in question.

 

 

 

HELLER, HARTMUT (Ed.)

Kulturethologie zwischen Analyse und Prognose

(Schriftenreihe der Otto-Koenig-Gesellschaft, Wien. matreier Gespräche zur Kulturethologie 2007)

Wien: Lit Verlag 2008

326 pp., Euro 29.90; ISBN 3-7000-0892-7

Keywords: ethology and culture, evolution and culture, culture-ethology, prognosis, evolutionary developments, causality, Folklore Studies, humanities, Lem, S., technology

 

Cultural ethology between analysis and prognosis

This book is the result of the 33rd Matrei Meeting (Eastern Tyrolia), aiming to bridge the gap between biological evolutionary research and the humanities/social sciences - to explain and prognosticate cultural processes.

REINGRABNER, GUSTAV: Die Matreier Gespräche - einige Erinner-ungen und aktuelle Fragen dazu [Matrei Conversations - Some recollections and current questions]

VOLAND, ECKART: Kulturethologie zwischen zirkulärer Tautologie, Prognosefähigkeit und Erklärungskraft [Cultural ethology between circular tautology, ability for prognosis, and power to explain]

FISCHER, WALTHER L.: Von der Analyse zur Prognose. Begriffskritische Anmerkungen eines Mathematikers [From analysis to prognosis. Critical remarks of a mathematician]

NAGEL, KLAUS: Die Schwierigkeiten der Prognose bei evolutionären Entwicklungen [The difficulty of prognosis in the case of evolutionary developments]

RUSO, BERNHART: Kulturethologische Verlaufsformen - Validität und überlegungen zu ultimaten und proximaten Kausalitäten [Culture-ethological forms of succession - Validity and reflections on ultimate and proximate causalities]

SCHMOLL, FRIEDEMANN: Prognose oder Suggestion? Die Zukunft, die Volkskunde und die Geisteswissenschaften [Prognosis or suggestion? Future, Folklore Studies, and the humanities]

TREML, ALFRED K. & ANNETTE SCHEUNPFLUG: Warum Prognosen unmöglich und unvermeidlich sind. Das Beispiel Pädagogik [Why prognoses are impossible and unavoidable]

LIEDTKE, MAX: Prognose als der biologische Anpassungswert von Lernen und das Problem der Verbesserung der Prognostik in der Wissenschaft. Beispielsfall: Schreibgeräte als ein Gegenstand der Kulturethologie [Prognosis as the biological adaptivity value of learning and the problem of prognosis improvement in science. Case: Writing tools as an object of cultural ethology]

MEHL, ANDREAS: Von der Vergangenheit in die Zukunft: Historiker als Propheten? [From the past into future: Historians as prophets?]

HELLER, HARTMUT: Heesters & Co. - immer schneller, weiter, höher, älter, mehr! Menschliches Bedürfnis nach Prognosen und Rekorden [The human need for prognoses and setting up records]

TREML, ALFRED K.: Kann man wissen, wie die Musik weitergeht? Eine Fallstudie aus der Volksmusik: Hubert von Goisern [Is it possible to know how music will go on? A case study in folk music: Hubert von Goisern]

GIRTLER, ROLAND: Mythos und Faszination der Haarfarbe Blond. Kulturanthropologische und kulturethologische Betrachtungen [Myth and fascination of blond hair - cultural anthropological and culture-ethological reflections]

SCHMAUKS, DAGMAR: Kulturethologische Aspekte in Stanislaw Lems ,Summa technologiae". Ein Brückenschlag zwischen Kulturethologie und Futurologie [Culture-ethological aspects in Stanislaw Lem”s ,Summa technologiae". Bridging Culture-ethology and futurology]

STUCKENSCHNEIDER, HEINRICH: Pictures of the Future - Ein Modell zur Zukunftsgestaltung. Technologiemanagement bei Siemens [A model for future design. Technology management in the Siemens Corporation]

KREBS, UWE: Kulturelle Tradierung als Denkhindernis beim kreativen Problemlösen in der Technik. Hinweise aus der Kulturethologie und Schlussfolgerungen [Cultural tradition as a hindrance of thought in creative problem-solving in technology. Insights from Culture-ethology]

BENDER, OLIVER: Das Geographische Alpeninformationssystem GALPIS - ein Internet-basiertes Instrument für Analysen und Prognosen in der Regionalforschung [The geographical Alpes information system, GALPIS: An internet-based instrument for analysis and prognosis in regional research]

BENDER, OLIVER & SIGRUN KANITSCHEIDER: Nachhaltige Entwicklung der Gemeinde Virgen/ Osttirol. Exkursion anlässlich der 33. Matreier Gespräche ,,Kulturethologie zwischen Analyse und Prognose" [Sustained development of the community of Virgen, Eastern Tyrolia]

 

 

 

HENN, ALEXANDER & KLAUS-PETER KOEPPING (Eds.)

Rituals in an unstable world. Contingency - hybridity - embodiment

Frankfurt/M.: Lang Verlag 2008

340 pp., Euro 49.80; ISBN 3-631-57393-8

Keywords: ritual, contingency, hybridity, embodiment, initiation, Kayapo, performance, carnival, segregation, fasting, mediums, masks

 

##Refuting prophecies of an unstoppable increase in secularization, the fascination of religious rituals proofs to be unbroken in the late modern world. This book contests classical paradigms that reduce the rationale of rituals to normativity (Durkheim), intelligibility (Geertz) and dialectics (Turner). Instead, it shows that rituals assert their significance in the post-colonial and globalizing world by successfully negotiating structure and contingency, identity and hybridity, script and embodiment. Its case studies are dealing with a broad variety of ritual genres and expressions, including initiation ceremonies and spirit possession, new harvest ceremonies, cults of ancestors, deities and saints, ceremonial receptions, inaugurations and memorials, ritual theatre, carnival and ritual painting in contemporary Brazil, Germany, France, India, Japan, Taiwan, USA, Vietnam, and Yemen.##

HENN, ALEXANDER: Introduction. Beyond Norm, Text and Dialectics - Ritual as Social Praxis

STOHER, ULRICKE: Keeping Stability in an Unstable World: Ritual, Performance and Identity in Yemen

SIQUEIRA, ALITO: Performing Myths of Location: The Return of the Goddess of Saltura (India)

SINGH, MANI SHEKHAR: Tradition, Pictorial Convention, Personal Trait: Poetics of Composition in Maithil Painting (India)

RUDOLPH, MICHAEL: Improvisation, Contingency, and Ambiguity: The Efficacy of Contemporary Ritual Performances of Taiwan's Aborigines

TURNER, TERENCE: Ritualized Politics and Politicized Ritual Among Ourselves and the Kayapo of Brazil

SALZBRUNN, MONIKA: Marginal Politics: Carnivals as a Mode of Expression in Migration (France / Germany)

NISHIMURA, AKIRA: Symbiosis or Segregation? Dealing with the "Foreign" in Nagasaki

SCHMIDT, BETTINA: Polyphonic Bricolage: Caribbean Religious Cultures in New York City

HENN, ALEXANDER: Ritual, History and Identity in Goa (India)

HAUSER, BEATRIX: How to Fast for a Good Husband? Reflections on Ritual Imitation and Embodiment in Orissa (India)

ENDRES, KIRSTEN: Serving the Shadows: Performative Aspects of Vietnamese Mediumship

AVERBUCH, IRIT: Embodying the Sacred in Kagura Performances: On the Non-Verbal Language of Divine Presence in Japanese Ritual Dance-Dramas

KOEPPING, KLAUS-PETER: Body-Text-Mask: Competing Ritual Strategies and the Fracturing of Collective Identity in Modern Japan

CRAPANZANO, VINCENT: On the Preclusive Dimension of Ritual Representation

 

 

 

HITZLER, RONALD, ANNE HONER & MICHAELA PFADENHAUER (Eds.)

Posttraditionale Gemeinschaften. Theoretische und ethnografische Erkun-dungen

(Erlebniswelten 14)

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2008

358 pp., Euro 24.90; ISBN 3-531-15731-3

Keywords: posttraditional communities, neo-tribes, communities via brands, situative event communities, Gothics, public viewing communities, situative and transsituative communities, evolutionary theory

 

Posttraditional communities. Theoretical and ethnographic explorations

Posttraditional communities display numerous thematic foci but usually do not have efficient ways for sanction - to push through among their members what is important and valuable for them. They cannot oblige individuals to become members, and once they are members to oblige them to do certain things, but are only able to “seduce” or lure them. This kind of “seduction” takes place mainly through the option of participation in a form of social life that seems attractive, including “events”. Following conceptual articles about what posttraditional communities are and how/where they emerge, metaprocesses involved are discussed (virtual communities, deterritorial communities, market communities), situative and transsituative communities (communities via brands, situative event communities, Gothics, public viewing (i.e., viewing public events together, such as sports)). The last sections deal with the posttraditionalization of community (communities in rural areas, traditions in posttraditional settings) and the biological factor in posttraditional communities (evolutionary theory, love).

 

 

 

H‚ÖRNING, KARL H.

Schwieriges Verhältnis. Schwellen zwischen Ethnologie und Soziologie

Paideuma 54.2008:41-58

Keywords: sociology and ethnology, ethnology and sociology, Muehlmann, W.E., Weber, M., globalization

 

A difficult relationship. Thresholds between ethnology and sociology

Hörning relates his personal educational - and later professional - experience and “development” in the encounter of anthropology (ethnology) and sociology: especially the German situation when he was a student at Heidelberg, in the aftermath of Max Weber. The founder of the Heidelberg Institute: of Ethnology AND Sociology was W.E. Mühlmann, who was, in the 1960s, accused of having been a Nazi, an intellectual one, and he describes scholarly and political/social processes connected with this - criticism by members of the Frankfurt School (Adorno, Habermas...). This is followed by a somewhat more international assessment of the interplay, or its lack, of the two disciplines - diverging paths, and he ends with the present (2004) situation of globalization, questions of hybridization, of micro vs. macro-sociology, or anthropology.

 

 

 

JANOWSKI, HANS NORBERT & THEODOR LEUENBERGER (Eds.)

Globale Akteure der Entwicklung. Die neuen Szenarien

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2008

263 pp., Euro 24.90; ISBN 3-531-15820-4

Keywords: development, actors of development, global actors (development), Churches and development, NGOs

 

Global actors of development. The new scenarios

Contributions in this book try to assess the polycentric constellation which facilitated the second drive/push of globalization, discussing western power centers as well as African and Asian ones - stressing the necessity for networking among them.

KAPPELER, BEAT: Die zweite Globalisierung. Weltgesellschaft und Weltwirtschaft - Fakten und Trends [The second globalization. World society and world economy]

LEUENBERGER, THEODOR: Harte und weiche Kulturen. Anmerkungen zur transkontinentalen Interaktionsgeschichte [Hard and soft cultures. Notes on the transcontinental history of interactions]

EPPLER, ERHARD: Gegen marktradikale Globalisierung. Entwicklungs-politik als Faktor der Weltinnenpolitik [Against market-radical globalization. Development politics as a factor in world interior politics]

BROCK, LOTHAR: Auf dem Königsweg in die Sackgasse? Die Verknüpfung von Entwicklung und Sicherheit [The avenue into a dead end street? Interlinking development and security]

ARUNGA, JUNE: Hope for Africa. Leaving behind the central planning and aid paradigm

IMMEL, KARL-ALBRECHT: Die globale Zeche in Zahlen. Daten und Fakten zur Einen Welt [The global balance in numbers. Data and facts on the One World]

ANHELM, FRITZ ERICH: Konfession gegen Professionalisierung?     kumene und kirchliche Entwicklungsverantwortung in Globalisierungs-prozessen [Ecumenism and ecclesiastical responsibility for development in globalization processes]

WILKENS, KLAUS: Kirchliche Weltverantwortung im Licht der ‚Öku-mene. Identitätsverlust durch ‚Öffnung für die Außenwelt? [Ecclesiastical responsibility for the world in the light of ecumenism]

CONRING, WARNER: Globalisierung und Religionen. Christliche Impulse für weltweite Entwicklung [Globalization and religions. Christian impulses for worldwide development]

LINNENBRINK, GüNTER: Hoffnung nach fünfunddreißig Jahren? Alte und neue Ziele und Fehler der kirchlichen Entwicklungsarbeit aus deutscher Sicht [Old an new goals and mistakes of ecclesiastical development work from a German perspective]

BONIN, KONRAD VON: Partnerschaft und Nähe zur Basis. Interview über kirchliche Entwicklungsarbeit heute [Partnership and proximity to the basis. An interview about ecclesiastical development work today]

HERMLE, REINHARD: Akteure der Zivilgesellschaft. Die veränderte Rolle von Nichtregierungsorganisationen in der Entwicklungspolitik [Actors of civil society. The changed role of NGOs in development work]

SEITZ, KLAUS: Lernen für eine zukunftsfähige Entwicklung. Aktionsgruppen und Nichtregierungsorganisationen als Plattformen gesellschaftlicher Innovation [Action groups and NGOs as platforms for societal innovation]

JANOWSKI, HANS NORBERT: Passt der Globus in die Nische? Entwicklung in der Informations- und Kommunikationsgesellschaft [Development in information and communication society]

LEFRINGHAUSEN, KLAUS: Migration und Integration als Chance. Aussichten des christlich-muslimischen Dialogs [Migration and integration as an opportunity. Chances of the Christian-Islamic dialog]

FüLLKRUG-WEITZEL, CORNELIA: Frauen als Akteurinnen wirtschaft-licher und sozialer Entwicklung. Lernerfahrungen bei ,,Brot für die Welt” [Women as actors of economic and social development. Experiences in the “Brot für die Welt” NGO]

KUMMER PEIRY, KATHARINA: Privatwirtschaft und Umweltschutz. Die Beteiligung der Wirtschaft an internationalen Konventionen [Private economy and environmental protection. The share of the economy in international conventions]

KULESSA, MANFRED: Von Rosenstock-Huessy zu Hartmut von Hentig Vorschläge für eine allgemeine Dienstpflicht [Proposals for a general duty of service]

                                          

 

 

JENSEN, JüRGEN

Ethnographische Datenerfassung, Dokumentation und Beschreibung bei Pietro Della Valle (1586-1652). (Fortsetzung von Anthropos 102.2007: 421-439)

Anthropos 103.2008:179-190

Keywords: Della Valle, P., data gathering, documentation, travel accounts

 

Ethnographic data gathering, documentation, and description in Pietro Della Valle (1586-1652). (Continued from Anthropos 102.2007: 421-439)

##Many important elements for the development of cultural/social anthropology had already been present before the Enlightenment, between the 15th and the beginning of the 18th century. The Italian traveller Pietro Della Valle, who visited many Oriental countries and parts of India in the years 1614-1626, published the then most voluminous and sophisticated travel reports of the time. Besides other material, it contains a vast amount of ethnographic data. The argument of this article is that Della Valle already developed and applied explicitly the main principles of ethnographic fieldwork, evaluated critically his data, and provided detailed information about his sources.##

KAUPPERT, MICHAEL

Ein romantisches Gehirn - Zum cerebral turn der strukturalen Anthropologie

Berliner Journal für Soziologie 18.2008:307-333

Keywords: Lévi-Strauss, C., naturalism, emergence, reduction, cerebral turn, neuro-sciences, ontology, romanticism, structuralism

 

A romantic brain. On the cerebral turn in structural anthropology

##Sociology has so far discussed the results of neurobiological research with regard to two different aspects: normatively, as the question for the creatorship of actions, and methodologically, as the question for their relevance in explaining social actions. In doing so, it often ignores the fact that neurobiological naturalism particularly challenges theoretical sociology to account for (socio-)ontological questions of constitution. This paper suggests that, as to this matter, sociology by itself makes advances to the natural sciences. With the help of the example of Lévi-Strauss' structural anthropology, it will be shown why and to what range this demand is met. The beginning of the paper explains the extent to which Lévi-Strauss' programmatic naturalism is romantically motivated. At the level of practical realisation, the next part follows the question to what extent a naturalist position can actually be deduced from the general context of the empirical fields of research within structural anthropology. Finally, the concluding part of the paper discusses the socio-theoretical, cardinal question for the relation of emergence and reduction on the basis of the example of Lévi-Strauss.##

 

 

 

KAUPPERT, MICHAEL & DORETT FUNCKE (Eds.)

Wirkungen des wilden Denkens. Zur strukturalen Anthropologie von Claude Lévi-Strauss

(Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft 1892)

Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp Verlag 2008

446 pp., Euro 15,-; ISBN 3-51829492-5

Keywords, Lévi-Strauss, C., structuralism, pensée sauvage, symbolism and Lévi-Strauss, Merleau-Ponty, M., deconstruction, Derrida, J., Foucault, M., Bourdieu, P.

 

Effects of the pensée sauvage. On the structural anthropology of Claude Lévi-Strauss

This is a volume designed to honor Lévi-Strauss on the occasion of his 100th birthday.

KAUPPERT, MICHAEL & DORETT FUNCKE: Zwischen Bild und Begriff. Wildes Denken nach Lévi-Strauss [Between image and notion. Pensée sauvage according to Lévi-Strauss]

LEVI-STRAUSS, CLAUDE: Mythisches Denken und wissenschaftliches Denken [Mythical and scientific thinking]

FABECK, HANS VON: Ursprung und Zukunft des wilden Denkens. Claude Lévi-Strauss und Maurice Merleau-Ponty [Origin and future of pensée sauvage. Claude Lévi-Strauss and Maurice Merleau-Ponty]

LANG, HERMANN: Claude Lévi-Strauss und Jacques Lacan

FAUBION, JAMES D.: Homo absconditus: Lévi-Strauss und Foucault

SCHULTHEIS, FRANZ: Bourdieu und Lévi-Strauss: eine ambivalente Beziehung [Bourdieu und Lévi-Strauss: an ambivalent relationship]

WETZEL, DIETMAR J. & SILJA THOMAS: Jacques Derrida und die (un-)möglichen Gaben der Dekonstruktion [Jacques Derrida and the (im-) possible gifts of deconstruction]

DESVEAUX, EMMANUEL: Lévi-Strauss und das Schicksal der Anthropologie [Lévi-Strauss and the fate of anthropology]

OPPITZ, MICHAEL: Unter den Plejaden [Under the Pleiades]

FISCHER, JOACHIM: Lévi-Strauss und die deutsche Soziologie: Strukturalismus, Philosophische Anthropologie und Poststrukturalismus [Lévi-Strauss and German sociology: Structuralism, philosophical anthro-pology, and post-structuralism]

DÄRMANN, IRIS: Lévi-Strauss und die Philosophie [Lévi-Strauss and philosophy]

DESCOLA, PHILIPPE: Die zwei Naturen bei Lévi-Strauss [The two natures in Lévi-Strauss]

HENAFF, MARCEL: Lévi-Strauss und die Frage des Symbolismus [Lévi-Strauss and the question of symbolism]

SCHüTTPELZ, ERHARD: Der magische Moment. Mit einem Beitrag von Martin Zillinger [The magical moment. With a contribution by Martin Zillinger]

PAUL, AXEL T.: Zeitreisen. Lévi-Strauss und die Geschichte [Time journeys. Lévi-Strauss and history]

WISEMAN, BORIS: Struktur und Empfindung [Structure and perception]

ZEHENTREITER, FERDINAND: ,,Das höchste Geheimnis der Wissenschaften vom Menschen”. Claude Lévi-Strauss' methodologische Huldigung an die Musik [“The top secret of the human sciences”. Claude Lévi-Strauss”s methodological homage to music]

LEIBOWITZ, RENE: Die Poesie von Lévi-Strauss [The poetry of Lévi-Strauss]

FUNCKE, DORETT: Die elementaren Strukturen der Inseminationsfamilie [The elementary structures of the insemination family]

KAUPPERT, MICHAEL: Das Haus oder “der Knecht meines eigenen Herrn” [The house or “the slave of my own lord”]

 

 

 

KIESERLING, ANDRE

Felder und Klassen: Pierre Bourdieus Theorie der modernen Gesellschaft

Zeitschrift für Soziologie 37.2008:3-24

Keywords: Bourdieu, P., fields vs. classes, classes vs. fields, action theory

 

##Fields and Classes: Pierre Bourdieu's Theory of Modern Society

Bourdieu describes modern society as differentiated into classes on the one hand and into fields on the other. This article discusses the status of these two forms of differentiation in Bourdieu”s theory, and it argues that the logic of his own arguments forces Bourdieu to regard fields rather than classes as the primary units of social differentiation. A close reading of Bourdieu”s theory thus cannot support the idea of modern society as primarily differentiated along class lines. The following elements of his theory are discussed to substantiate this claim: the concept of autonomous fields and why it is not applied to the educational system, the concept of class and its implications for the notions of a “ruling” and a “universal” class, and, finally, the corresponding theory of action.##

 

 

 

KLEIN, DIETER

Beamte, Kapitäne und Kaufleute - Sammeln zu Kaiser Wilhelms Zeiten für das Königlich Ethnographische Museum in München

Münchner Beiträge zur Völkerkunde 11.2007:259-290

Keywords: museology, South Sea collection, colonialism and museums

 

Officials, captains and merchants - Collecting in the era of Emperor William for the Royal Ethnographic Museum at Munich

## One might imagine that it was ethnologists who collected the objects for the Royal Ethnographical Collection in Munich before the First World War. However the majority of items exhibited in the South Sea Collection in Munich were, surprisingly, collected by other groups of people in the former colony of German New Guinea: civil servants, captains and merchants. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the various, often astonishing, routes taken by the exhibits before they finally ended up in the State Museum of Ethnology. While Governor Albert Hahl donated selflessly and out of patriotism to the museum, the contributions of Station Commander Franz Boluminski and Captain Karl Nauer were only handed over in return for medals and titles and as a means of satisfying their vanity. The legacies of the agricultural expert Heinz von Sigriz (ethnographica and photo albums) and the head of the New Guinea Company Hubert Geisler were only given to the museum in 2003 and 2004 by their heirs. Another issue examined here are the different paths followed by the collectors within their colonial context.##

 

 

 

KOEPPING, ELIZABETH

Foods, friends and funerals. On lived religion

(Anthropology of religion 1)

Berlin: Lit Verlag 2008

201 pp., Euro 29.90; ISBN 3-8258-1110-5

Keywords: religious studies, theology, Lutherans, Anglicans, Muslims, identity and religion, funerals and identity, ritual and identity, missiology

 

##This is a wide-ranging yet incisive text on 'religion from below' by an anthropologist, based on many years of field-work in Borneo and Australia and current teaching in practical theology and religious studies. It argues that rural Lutherans in Australia, and rural Anglicans, Muslims and local religionists in Malaysia, whose views form the core of the book, discern their religious identity primarily in terms of their food, friends and partners and funeral practices, and only secondarily - if at all - in terms of belief and doctrine. It also criticizes ego-centred and ethnocentred approaches to religion too often apparent in religious studies and missiology.##

 

 

 

KOGER, FRIEDRICH

Die Anfänge der Ethnologie in Wien. Ein Beitrag zur Wissenschafts-geschichte

(Austria: Universitätsgeschichte 2)

Wien: Lit Verlag 2008

159 pp., Euro 19.90; ISBN 3-8258-0501-2

Keywords: ethnology (Austria), history of anthropology, Catholicism and anthropology, Haberlandt, A.

The beginnings of ethnolgoy in Vienna. A contribution to the history of science

Ethnology in Vienna started in the mid-19th century. This “primary matter” or setting of ethnology and ethnography is being formed in the era of political scientific liberalism and has a self-image of being a “descriptive science of peoples”. Of importance are specifically cultural science, linguistics, and indology, and one specific event was the founding of the “Anthropological Society of Vienna” in 1870. Prominent influences were liberalism and nationalism, Catholicism, the workers” movement, and the development of the university in Vienna. Protagonists (or “cases”) of this era are: C.F. Fernberger, the Novara expedition, the Anthropological Society of Vienna. Several anthropologists are portrayed (F. Müller, P. Paulitschke, F. v. Luschan, R. Pöch, R. v. Heine-Geldern), and Michael and Arthur Haberland are described in detail.

 

 

 

KONERSMANN, RALF

Kulturkritik

Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp Verlag 2008

136 pp., Euro 15.80; ISBN 3-518-58499-6

Keywords: cultural criticism, criticism, modernism, postmodernism, Enlightenment, authority, equality, subordination, Rousseau, J.J.

 

Cultural criticism

The author describes a crisis of criticism - in modern, western societies (criticism being conceived as a child of Enlightenment, and with modifications in 1968). He sees attempts to “instrumentalize” critique, to moralize it and include it in regular processes (commissions, expert meetings...) which may lead to a decline of critique”s independence. Konersmann further opines that criticism is neither endangered nor threatened to disappear, but that it has already successfully changed and found new positions and forms of expression: it has become cultural criticism. He describes that only that variety of criticism is in critical condition which assumed a superior standpoint, classically depending on “master subjects” (i.e. modernist) such as truth, reason, history - having a component of subordination (of others). Logically, forms have changed to include “non-authoritative” ones, differing from “high culture”: iconic, ritual, movies, fashion, etc.; it has become rather “horizontal”. The book includes a lenghty chapter on J.J. Rousseau.

 

KRÄMER, SYBILLE

Medium, Bote, übertragung. Kleine Metaphysik der Medialität

Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp Verlag 2008

379 pp., Euro 28,-; ISBN 3-51858492-7

Keywords: mediality, messenger model, transference and media, mediation, philosophy of culture, perception, media and perception, transmission

 

Medium, messenger, transference. A brief metaphysics of mediality

This is a philosophical perspective on mediality where “the medium” (whatever it may be) is positioned in the center and functions as  messenger, to transmit messages, contents, etc. It thus becomes a “third” factor - between (two) “heterogeneous worlds” exchanging (sender, receiver). Such processes are analyzed by Krämer in contexts such as the “angel”, viral disease transmission, transferring property, language translation, psychoanalytical transference, and transmission of knowledge through witnesses. It becomes clear that the elementary task of the media is to make something absent perceivable.

 

 

 

KRAWINKLER, STEPHANIE A. & SUSANNE OBERPEILSTEINER (Eds.)

Das Fremde. Konstruktionen und Dekonstruktionen eines Spuks

(Ethnologie 35)

Wien: Lit Verlag 2008

135 pp., Euro 19.90; ISBN 3-8258-1663-6

Keywords: alterity, otherness, discourse analysis, multiculturalism, globalization

 

Otherness. Constructions and deconstructions of a haunting

Alterity has become a focal topic in everyday life and sciences in the face of globalization. The papers deal with otherness in everyday life, politics, economy, advertising, etc.

PURPS, CAROLINE: Die Kritische Diskursanalyse [Critical discourse analysis]

KOLODZIEJCZYK, ALEKSANDRA: _wien ist eine weltoffene stadt_

OBERPEILSTEINER, SUSANNE: Konzepte von Multikulturalität und Multikulturalismus [Concepts of multiculturalism]

WEGHUBER, STEFAN: Begegnungen zwischen Afrikanern und ‚ÖsterreicherInnen um 1945, am Beispiel Vorarlbergs

KRAWINKLER, STEPHANIE A.: Diversity Management

KLIEN, HANNA M.:  Was ist Bamboocha [What is Bamboocha]

KüGLER, JOACHIM & LUKAS BORMANN (Eds.)

Töchter (Gottes). Studien zum Verhältnis von Kultur, Religion und Geschlecht

(bayreuther forum Transit. Kulturwissenschaftliche Religionsstudien 8)

Berlin: Lit Verlag 2008

219 pp., Euro 19.90; ISBN 3-8258-11853

Keywords: gender and religion, religion and gender, feminism, theological gender studies, Biblical women, feminist theology, religious education, Islam

 

Daughters (of god). Studies on the relationship of culture, religion, and gender

The 13 papers of this book originated in a series of lectures at the University of Bayreuth in 2006/07, organized and read by social scientists as well as theologians; hence, the title of the book indicates a theological as well as a social science focus on the gender topic. The range of topics is a wide as can be - chronologically and culturally: two papers on ancient Egyptian religious processes, four biblical ones, one of a woman saint in late-medieval Germany, one on Jeanne d”Arc, two “anthropological” papers: on Benin and on Muslim women, and finally there are three papers on current debates: Christian influence on education, spirituality in mystery series, and a paper on feminist theology.

 

 

 

LENK, HANS

Humanitätsforschung als interdisziplinäre Anthropologie. Zur philosophi-schen Anthropologie zwischen Stammesgeschichte und Kulturdeutung

(Schriften zur Humanitäts- und Glücksforschung 3)

Frankfurt/M.: Lang Verlag 2008

427 pp., Euro 58,-; ISBN 3-631-57761-5

Keywords: humanitarianism research, philosophical anthropology, sociobiology, creativity, emotion, cognition

 

Humanitarianism research as an interdisciplinary anthropology. On philosophical anthropology between tribal history and the interpretation of culture

The author presents a philosophical anthropology with a proximity to both practice and scholarship. In doing so he includes biological, systems-theoretical and social-scientific material, and deals with normative philosophical approaches such as responsibility, human rights questions, freedom, and freedom of will, and the search for meaning in life. This includes historical beginnings of humanitarianism research in ancient China and problems of “concrete humanitarianism” in modern “pushy” society, creativity in postmodernity, etc.  The focus is on man as a creative, achieving, responsible, and normative being.

 

 

 

MAURER, MICHAEL

Feste in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Aspekte, Beispiele, Perspektiven

Erwägen Wissen Ethik 19.2008:211-263

Keywords: feasts, festivals, cultures of festivals, nation and festivals

 

Festivals in history and present. Aspects, examples, perspectives

##As a start, this contribution offers a discussion of some of the traditional elements of definitions of feasts, stressing, 'community' and 'commanding competence', then, as a second step, the impact of the challenge of Enlightenment, seen as a central epoch of cultural history, with a peak in the new formation of festivities under the auspices of “nation”. Finally, the results of this quest for a definition and modern formation of feasting is applied to an analysis of the notorious 'crisis of feasting' in the present.##

 

 

 

MOEBIUS, STEPHAN & ANDREAS RECKWITZ (Eds.)

Poststrukturalistische Sozialwissenschaften

(Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft 1869)

Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp Verlag 2008

471 pp., Euro 16,-; ISBN 3-518-29469-7

Keywords: Poststructuralist social sciences, inequality, structuralism, postmodernism, heterosexuality, heteronormativity, practice and poststructuralism, différance, class, globalization

 

Poststructuralist social sciences

The authors observe that poststructuralist thinking pertains to practically all social science areas, whether it is society, power, religion, art... They ask how central social-scientific concepts and research are being transformed by adopting poststructural perspectives.

BONACKER, THORSTEN: Gesellschaft: Warum die Einheit der Gesellschaft aufgeschoben wird. [Society: Why the unity of society is being postponed]

WETZEL, DIETMAR J.: Gemeinschaft: Vom Unteilbaren des geteilten Miteinanders [Community: Of the indivisible of divided working with each other]

MOEBIUS, STEPHAN: Handlung und Praxis: Konturen einer poststrukturalistischen Praxistheorie [Action and practice: Contours of a poststructuralist practice theory]

RECKWITZ, ANDREAS: Subjekt/ldentität: Die Produktion und Subver-sion des Individuums [Subject/identity: The production and subversion of the individual]

QUADFLIEG, DIRK: Sprache und Diskurs: Von der Struktur zur différance [Language and discourse: From structure to différance]

STÄHELI, URS: System: Unentscheidbarkeit und Differenz [Impossibility to decide and difference]

KNEER, GEORG: Institution/ Organisation: über die Paradoxie des Organisierens [Institution/organization: On the paradox of organizing]

SCHROER, MARKUS: Raum: Das Ordnen der Dinge [Arranging/ordering things]

MOEBIUS, STEPHAN: Macht und Hegemonie: Grundrisse einer poststrukturalistischen Analytik der Macht [Power and hegemony: [Foundations of a poststructuralist analysis of power]

OPITZ, SVEN: Exklusion: Grenzgänge des Sozialen [Commuters of the Social]

SAAR, MARTIN: Klasse/Ungleichheit: Von den Schichten der Einheit zu den Achsen der Differenz [Class/inequality: On the layers of unity to the axes of difference]

GERTENBACH, LARS: Geschichte, Zeit und sozialer Wandel: Konturen eines poststrukturalistischen Geschichtsdenkens [History, time, and social change: Contours of a poststructuralist conception of history]

RECKWITZ, ANDREAS: Moderne: Der Kampf um die ‚Öffnung und Schließung von Kontingenzen [The fight for opening up and closing of contingencies]

ANGERMüLLER, JOHANNES: Postmoderne: Zwischen Repräsenta-tionskrise und Entdifferenzierung [Postmodernity: Between crisis of representation and de-differentiation]

REUTER, JULIA: Globalisierung: Phänomen - Debatte - Rhetorik [Globalization: Phenomenon - debate - rhetoric]

NONHOFFF, MARTIN: Politik und Regierung: Wie das sozial Stabile dynamisch wird und vice versa [Politics and rule: How the socially stable becomes dynamic and vice versa]

STÄHELI, URS: ‚Ökonomie: Die Grenzen des ‚Ökonomischen [Economy: The limits of the Economic]

KIESOW, RAINER MARIA: Recht: über strukturelle Irrtümer [Law: On structural mistakes]

ENGEL, ANTKE: Geschlecht und Sexualität: Jenseits von Zweige-schlechtlichkeit und Heteronormativität [Gender and sexuality: Beyond heterosexuality and heteronormativity]

HETZEL, ANDREAS: Religion: Eine poststrukturale Soziologie [Religion: a poststructural sociology]

HORN, EVA: Literatur: Gibt es Gesellschaft im Text? [Literature: Is there society in the text?]

PRINZ, SOPHIA & HILMAR SCHÄFER: Kunst und Architektur: Materielle Strukturen der Sichtbarkeit. [Art and architecture: Material structures of visibility]

KüMMEL-SCHNUR, ALBERT: Medien: Protokoll einer Disziplinierung [Media: A protocol of disciplining]

WIESER, MATTHIAS: Technik/Artefakte: Mattering Matter [Technology/ Artifacts: Mattering Matter]

SCHRAGE, DOMINIK: Konsum: Ein Erfolgsthema des Post-strukturalismus? [Consumption: A successful topic of poststructuralism?]

SCHMIDGEN, HENNING: Wissenschaft: Das Labor als Archiv und Maschine [Science: The laboratory as archive and machine]

 

 

 

MOTTIER, VERONIQUE

Theorising Sexuality. Gender Power, Feminism and Sexual “Liberation”

Tsantsa 13.2008:34-41

Keywords: sexuality, gender, race, power, feminism

 

##This article proposes to treat sexuality as a cultural object, analysing the sexual meanings produced by specific discourses on sexuality and gender power. More precisely, it focuses on the ways in which sexual liberation theorists have theorised sexuality as a site of liberation from capitalist power relations and it explores feminist critiques of sexual liberation discourse, drawing out the ways in which feminist debates around sexuality have recast sexuality as a crucial site of gender power.##

 

 

 

 

 

 

MüLLER, KLAUS E.

Gottes Ungenügen. Mythen von der Erschaffung der Welt, des Menschen und der Bedrohung des Daseins

Paideuma 53.2007:255-276

Keywords: god”s impotence, myths, creation myths, endangered existence, evolution(ism), Christian theology, Enlightenment

 

God”s insufficiency. Myths of the creation of the world, of humans, and the endangerment of existence

Müller contemplates creation myths, states their basic features to be universal, they seem to be master stories, and he interconnects them with creative human work: the manufacture of artifacts as extensions (tools) of human abilities, bodily or mental. He sees a similarity between creation myths, with gods as agents, and human creative agency and its evolutionary history (from simple tools to nuclear plants). It is a narrative account of how “culture” emerged, utilizing well-known anthropological patterns of how religion and cultures came into being, and how they proceeded - all set in a “mythological language”, a language like a myth, profusely using the notion of god to explain things in a quasi-Christian way (from creation to apocalypse, the Day of Judgment etc.), interwoven with human organization - or being created by it: It is an overall explanation of the (human) world and the course it takes, and the article ends with the question of whether Enlightenment with all its effects will be beneficial or not.

 

 

 

MüNCH, RICHARD

Stratifikation durch Evaluation: Mechanismen der Konstruktion von Statushierarchien in der Forschung

Zeitschrift für Soziologie 37.2008:60-80

Keywords: status hierarchies, hierarchy, measuring universities, evaluation in academia, peer reviews

 

##Stratification by Evaluation: Mechanisms of Constructing Status Hierarchies in Research

This article deals with the question as to why in what way and with what consequences procedures of evaluating the achievements of university departments in research as part of governance by peer review and/or numbers as promoted by New Public Management, do not simply measure differences in achievement and in corresponding rank, but construct, reproduce, and consolidate the differences in achievement and rank. The investigation starts with a case study on the evaluation of economics and management science at Bavarian universities in 1999. The case study is carried out in two steps. The results of the study are then interpreted theoretically and explained with regard to causes, accompanying features, and consequences. The major finding of the study is that centrally organized comparative evaluation of departments contributes to the construction of self-reproductive status hierarchies. Three mechanisms each of constructing and of reproducing status hierarchies are disclosed in the analysis.##

 

 

 

MüNKLER, HERFRIED

Krieg

Erwägen Wissen Ethik 19.2008:27-147

Keywords: war, transnational wars, fourth generation wars, violence and states, Westphalian system, guerilla, sovereignty of states, new wars

 

War

 ##The observation, central to political theory and the history of ideas, that conceptual and political orders do not only correspond with, but virtually condition each other, becomes apparent in dramatic ways when looking at war and peace: Without a proper concept of war, a peace regime cannot be built. This explains the intensity of recent debates on the "New Wars" theorem. Crucial for European history of war in modern times is the dissociation of interstate war and civil war, of war and guerrilla, as has been codified in the Peace of Westphalia. The so-called "Westphalian system" of nation-state sovereignty, including the related form of international law, focused on maintaining this dissociation. It guaranteed not only the symmetry of wars, but also the stability of peace regimes of a non-imperial kind. This, however, appears to be unfeasible since the end of the 20th century. As we lack concise concepts for understanding the new constellations and continue to use transitory terms such as "transnational wars" or “fourth generation war” etc. instead, efforts to build a long-lasting political order, too, have so far remained without success.##

 

 

 

 

 

NIEKRENZ, YVONNE & DIRK VILLANYI (Eds.)

Liebeserklärungen. Intimbeziehungen aus soziologischer Perspektive

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2008

248 pp., Euro 19.90; ISBN 3-531-15476-3

Keywords: love, sociology of love, theories of love

 

Declarations of love. Intimate relations from a sociological perspective

In this book the “primary category of love” serves as an example for the application of various sociological theories (such as rational choice, interactionism, phenomenology, Luhmann”s systems theory, structuralism, Critical Theory...) - to apply abstract theories to a phenomenon that can be empirically experienced, which is describing and explaining social facts. In this way theoretical constructs” functionality and ability to explain can be vividly demonstrated. In doing so, the notion of love is analyzed, too, then (Western) concepts of love through time, in present times, and trends pointing to the future.

 

 

 

NOLLMANN, GERD & HERMANN STRASSER

Unternehmen im globalen Stress: Zum kulturellen Wandel sozialer Beziehungen

Sociologia Internationalis 46.2008:49-68

Keywords: corporations, change in corporations, business and change, globalization and economy

 

Corporations in global stress: On the cultural change of social relations

##Since the 1990's globalization is on everybody's mind and discussed in all media. This article throws light on the cultural change taking place in these discussions as far as social relationships in corporations and the public sphere are concerned. Globalization serves as a policy of external attribution of inherent necessity. While the citizen is led into new unequal relations by the increasing global exchange of goods and services, his institutional ways to express discontent still rely on inadequate national channels.##

 

 

 

 

 

 

NOVAK-ZEZULA, SONJA, URSULA KARL-TRUMMER & JüRGEN M.  PELIKAN

Qualitätsgesichert Dolmetschen im Krankenhaus: Good Practice braucht organisationale Verankerung

Curare 31.2008:187-192

Keywords: language barrier, qualified interpreting, professional interpreting service, Migrant Friendly Hospital Project

 

##The Quality of Hospital Interpreting: European Experiences with Implementation and Evaluation

Language barriers are a major difficulty and impede successful communication between patients and hospital staff. Nine European hospitals, a scientific institute, and international experts cooperated in the "Migrant Friendly Hospital", a project to implement and evaluate professional interpreting services. The paper illustrates an example of good practice and evaluation results from a staff survey conducted before and after intervention. Especially the good practice model shows that quality assured interpreting services need a concrete organisational link-up. The article closes with recommendations for a concerted action within the hospital quality management.##

 

 

 

NüNNING, ANSGAR (Ed.)

Metzler Lexikon Literatur- und Kulturtheorie. Ansätze - Personen - Grundbegriffe. 4., aktualisierte und erweiterte Auflage

Stuttgart: Metzler Verlag 2008

808 pp., Euro 29.95; ISBN 3-476-02241-7

Keywords: culture theory, lexicon culture theory, literary and culture theory

 

Metzler Lexicon Literary and culture theory. Approaches, persons, basic notions. 4th enlarged ed.

This is a lexicon combining the areas of literary and cultural studies. The aim is to bring together information in literary and cultural theory, which is still “one of the most productive and dynamic” fields. The 4th edition of the lexicon includes new articles such as “iconic turn”, spatial turn”, “visual culture studies” etc., i.e., newly emerging theories and perspectives are added to the corpus.

 

 

 

PAPE, SIMONE & J‚ÖRG R‚ÖSSEL

Die visuelle Wahrnehmbarkeit sozialer Ungleichheit Eine alternative Methode zur Untersuchung der Entkopplungsthese

Zeitschrift für Soziologie 37.2008:25-41

Keywords: decoupling thesis, Beck, U., inequality

 

##The Visibility of Social Inequality - An Alternative Way of Testing Beck's Decoupling Thesis

The individualization thesis that was developed by Ulrich Beck in the 1980s has inspired quite a lot of research in the social sciences, which, however, has not led to conclusive results. This article focusses on the so called decoupling thesis, a core theorem in this discussion. It maintains that despite unchanging objective structures of social inequality, their relevance for social action, social identity and social perception has declined since the 1970s. In this paper an alternative method of testing the decoupling thesis was used in an explorative fashion. In an experiment respondents were asked to classify wedding portraits from the 1950s, 1970s, and 1990s by social class. The results of this experiment do not support the decoupling thesis since there is no linear decrease over time in the of correct classifications of the persons depicted.##

 

 

 

PARNES, OHAD, ULRIKE VEDDER & STEFAN WILLER

Das Konzept der Generation. Eine Wissenschafts- und Kulturgeschichte

(Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft 1855)

Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp Verlag 2008

385 pp., Euro 14,-; ISBN 3-51829455-0

Keywords: generation, age groups, genealogy, transgenerationality

 

The concept of the generation. A scientific and cultural history

This monograph presents a comprehensive scholarly and cultural history of the generation concept - in its biological, political, educational, historiographic, and literary dimensions: starting from the antique generation of the notion to current demographic and biomedical debates. This includes genealogical thought in premodernity, the physiology of the generation before and after the 17th century, the generation as a future model around 1800, genius and generativity between aesthetic theory and genetics, the family in literature of the 19th century, modernization of the concepts, the generation gap in the 20th century, transgenerationality (concepts of transference).

PAUL, AXEL T.

“Es ist unmoralisch, Geld von den Reichen zu nehmen und den Armen zu geben." Vom Sinn des Sozialstaats

Sociologia Internationalis 46.2008:1-30

Keywords: poverty, wealth, capitalism, Ewald, F., welfare state, providential state, social insurance systems, contractual logic, privatization, gift exchange, exchange, reciprocity, basic income, income

 

“It is amoral to take money from the rich and transfer it to the poor.” On the meaning of the social state

##The paper deals with the regularly and correctly assumed but theoretically rather seldom explicated reciprocal implication of the market and the welfare state. Based on Fran¬çois Ewald's analysis of the “providential state" it can be shown that the social insurance systems, which have been established in Europe since the 19th century, combine a contractual logic and one of gift exchange. It is argued that the widely called for re-privatisation of social security and the conversion of conventional welfare into workfare policies may eventually lead to the cancellation of the social contract of the welfare state. The author maintains that, should such reforms be thoroughly realized, the welfare state as an institution of political inclusion would become an agency that only replicates and embodies the principle of economic equivalence, instead of harbouring the ideal of gift exchange too and thereby cushioning the hardships of a capitalist labour market. The first section of the paper recalls instrumental as well as caring aspects of the evolution of the welfare state. Secondly the concept of reciprocity and the moral foundations of the providential state will be specified. Section three tackles the economic, social, political, and cultural dimensions of the social security crisis. Fourthly superficially similar but morally diametrically opposed proposals to introducing an unconditional basic income will be censored. In general it is the aim of the paper to prove the analytical potential of ,the gift" and to normatively defend its spirit against a consummation of the competitive market.##

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PüHRINGER, MARIANNE

Wetterzauberei und Schamanismus

(Europäische Hochschulschriften. Reihe XIX Volkskunde/Ethnologie Abt. B Ethnologie 74)

Frankfurt/M.: Lang Verlag 2008

216 pp., Euro 39,-; ISBN 3-631-56887-3

Keywords: weather witchcraft, shamanism, comparative religion, religion and magic, shamanism, rain magic, efficacy, rituals

 

Weather witchcraft and shamanism

Pühringer theoretically analyzes shamanic rain magic, geographically focusing on Australia (Unambal, Nyigina, Mara, Aranda, Dieri, Wotjobaluk, Kurnai, Kerami, etc.), Oceania (Keraki, Keto, Marind-anim, Roro, Yabob, etc.), Asia (Baiga, Saora, Munda, etc.), Africa (Akori, Bali, Sukuma, Zulu, Swazi, Tonga, etc.), the Americas (Eskimo, Tlingit, Hopi, Huichol, Natchez, Quechua, Aymara, etc.). In each case, examples are presented, compared, and analyzed according to categories such as nature spirits, rain sacrifices, rain stones, color symbolism, and behavioral rules. The author asks whether there are commonalities or similarities in these examples, and whether the weather can be really influenced by the shamans. Results show many common features of the cases.

 

 

 

PUSMAN, KARL

Die “Wissenschaften vom Menschen” auf Wiener Boden (1870-1959). Die anthropologische Gesellschaft in Wien und die anthropologischen Disziplinen im Fokus von Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Wissenschafts- und Verdrängungspolitik

(Austria: Universitätsgeschichte 1)

Wien: Lit Verlag 2008

326 pp., Euro 19.90; ISBN 3-8258-0472-5

Keywords: Anthropological Society of Vienna, Austrian anthropology, anthropology in Austria

 

The “sciences of man” in Vienna (1870-1959). The Anthropological Society of Vienna and the anthropological disciplines

Pusman documents and discusses the history of the society, founded in 1870 up to 1959, which comprises and includes the disciplines of physical anthropology, ethnology, pre-history, and Folklore Studies. This includes the discussion of functionaries, scholars, theoretical debates, their backing and provision of aid and promoting biologist doctrines, their political/ideological instrumentalization during National Socialism, and repression strategies after 1945. For each of the periods (monarchy, between the world wars, during National Socialism, after National Socialism) behavior and processes in the four disciplines is described. It is concluded that there are considerable gaps in historiography, especially for the “critical” periods.

 

 

 

REINHARDT, THOMAS

Die Erfindung der flachen Erde. Der Mythos Kolumbus und die Konstruktion der Epochenschwelle zwischen Mittelalter und Neuzeit

Paideuma 53.2007:161-180

Keywords: Columbus, C., Middle Ages, worldview (medieval), flat earth myth

 

The invention of the flat earth. The Columbus myth and the construction of the transition between the epochs of the Middle Ages and Modernity

Reinhardt recounts the history, the process of the invention of the flat earth particularly in the United States - connected with the history of Christopher Columbus.

 

 

 

REUTER, JULIA

Jugendliche Papstpilger - emanzipierte Muslimas - reisende Ordensfrauen: Neue Akteure der Religionssoziologie

Sociologia Internationalis 46.2008:31-48

Keywords: sociology of religion, new religions, pilgrims, nuns, Muslimas, migrants, events, religious studies

 

Young pilgrims to the pope, emancipated Muslimas, travelling nuns: New actors in the sociology of religion

##In its beginnings sociology of religion was practiced as a general theory of society. Today it has to share its objects with other special sociologies, for example youth or migration research. This elucidates many of contemporary religious studies, which do not focus on the social meaning and interpretation of religion generally, but ask the questions in greater detail: (1) How juveniles, who are socialised in a mediated every life, practice religious community, (2) in which way muslim women with educational and social capital interpretate the qu'ran, (3) and what kind of cultural meanings are accentuated by members of transnational religious communities? Drawing on selected studies the article reconstructs the current state of religious research in order to identify new fields and actors and reclaim the relevance of a religious-sociological perspective for the cultural analysis of society.##

 

 

 

RIPPL, SUSANNE & CHRISTIAN SEIPEL

Methoden kulturvergleichender Sozialforschung. Eine Einführung

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2008

189 pp., Euro 19.90; ISBN 3-531-14965-3

Keywords: comparative cultural/social research, survey research, cultural comparison, measuring culture, textbooks

 

Methods of comparative cultural/social research. An introduction

This textbook from a sociological perspective aims at a practice-oriented introduction, especially focusing on possibilities and limits of cultural-comparative survey research. The authors want to supply a sound basis for critically dealing with such studies, and to enable readers to conduct research themselves. For this purpose the authors first contemplate the relevance of “culture”, then sketch methodological debates (in anthropology, sociology, political science, psychology). They discuss aims and procedure of comparative studies (what and how to measure, how to sample). Procedures of selection are discusses, developing questionnaires, assessing social contexts, and ways to analyze (internal and external equivalence, etc.).

 

 

 

RITSCHEL, GREGOR

“No body is perfect”. Der Versuch einer Lacanschen Perspektive auf die molekulare Genetik im Kontext des Neoliberalismus

Cargo. Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 29.2008:34-43

Keywords: Lacan, J., neoliberalism, genetics and Lacan, neoliberalism and genetics, Zizek, S., coercion and culture, fitness and economy, genetic engineering, homo oeconomicus, molecular genetics and politics, politics and genetics

 

An attempt to apply a Lacan perspective to molecular genetics in the context of neoliberalism

Ritschel discusses recent predominance of evolutionary/evolutionist tendencies, e.g. in the natural and life sciences, against a Lacanian and economic (neoliberal) background: people being “coerced” to become fit, to remain fit - if they want to participate. This includes critical analyses of society, e.g. by Slavoj Zizek, Foucault, etc.

 

 

 

RITTER, MARTINA

Die Dynamik von Privatheit und ‚Öffentlichkeit in modernen Gesell-schaften

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2008

139 pp, Euro 24.90; ISBN 3-531-14649-2

Keywords: privacy, public and privacy, public sphere, feminism, theory of democracy, democracy

 

The dynamics of privacy and public in modern societies

While the public sphere is often discussed as a democratic ideal, or as a declining feature of late-modern societies privacy still is a residual category in political and theoretical debates, or is cherished as an uninterpreted realm of happiness. However, feminist debates show that the sphere of privacy needs to be integrated into the theoretical discussion as a central ingredient of social order and political processes. The author presents a reflexive account of the debate in feminism and the theory of democracy, and she generates a notion of privacy aiming at the dynamic relationship of private worlds and temporary, associative public spheres. In doing so, a concept of the public and the private subject is developed that should satisfy the interconnection of private and public/political patterns of interpretation in late-modern societies.

 

 

 

SARACENO, CHIARA

,,Care" leisten und “Care" erhalten zwischen Individualisierung und Refamilialisierung

Berliner Journal für Soziologie 18.2008:244-256

Keywords: care, social citizenship, autonomy, interdependence, gender, autonomy and family, women and labor market, individualization

 

Providing and receiving “Care” between individualization and re-familialization

##In industrialized, capitalist welfare states, men could be de-familialized because they could also abandon their caring needs and obligations to women, who therefore remained bound to the family. The focus on women, and precisely on the reasons why they remained bound to the family, has increasingly highlighted that not only incomplete individualisation was at issue, but the overall issue of care. There is a need to reformulate the concept of autonomy in order to include the relationships of interdependence that develop around care giving and care receiving along the life course and to incorporate care giving and care receiving both conceptually and in practice in the structure of social rights and social citizenship themselves. The author discusses how different countries are addressing the issue of care following women's increasing labour market participation and the ageing of the population, showing that there are contrasting trends both across and within countries.##

 

 

 

SCHÄDLICH, ANETT

Perspektiven auf Frauenbeschneidung: Ein Versuch der Erklärung

Cargo. Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 29.2008:18-22

Keywords: genital mutilation, clitoridectomy, violence against women

 

Perspectives on women”s genital mutilation: An attempt to explain

This is a brief account of the literature on genital mutilation, including pro and contra arguments regarding (western) activism, the work of NGOs, the human rights question, etc.

 

 

 

SCHÄFER, GABRIELE

Die tibetische Diaspora: Forschungsergebnisse und zukünftige Forschung

Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 133.2008:233-255

Keywords: diaspora, Tibetan diaspora, orientalism, marriage, partnership, sexuality, body, coping in diaspora

 

##The Tibetan Diaspora: Past and future research

First, demographic aspects and the focus of research of studies on the Tibetan Diaspora are presented in relation to other, general studies of diasporas. Then, the notion of “Tibetanness” is analyzed and, against this background, traditional Tibetan attitudes, the relation of adaptation and integration, and also the idea of "limited integration" in the Tibetan case. Then, the discourse on the Tibet question (by, and about Tibetans) and the present situation of information are briefly portrayed. This includes the influence of the western, or, "Orientalist" discourse. Following this research methods regarding the Tibetan Diaspora are described (as in Capper, Kohut) as well as major complexes of Tibetan identity in the Diaspora are described: health, partnership, marriage and sexuality, the body, and generally coping strategies and the notion of "religio-political" identity. Finally, changed identities in the Diaspora are dealt with, and future research is addressed.##

 

 

 

SCHÄFER, MIKE S.

Diskurskoalitionen in den Massenmedien. Ein Beitrag zur theoretischen und methodischen Verbindung von Diskursanalyse und ‚Öffentlichkeits-soziologie

Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 60.2008:367-397

Keywords: public sphere, mass media, media and discourse, discourse analysis, content analysis, biotechnology, correspondence analysis, Foucault, M., discourse coalitions

 

Discourse coalitions in mass media

##Two of the most highly developed analytical approaches to public and mass media debates are discourse analyses in the tradition of Michel Foucault and the theory of the public sphere that has been developed at the Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB). Both approaches emphasize relevant and complementary aspects of societal communication, but so far, there has been no attempt to combine the two. This is the aim of this article: First, it is shown that both approaches are based on similar assumptions. Second, the concept of "discourse, coalitions" is employed in order to bridge discourse analyses and the WZB model. Third, I propose to reconstruct discourse coalitions statistically using multiple correspondence analysis. Fourth, two examples will be considered in order to demonstrate discourse coalitions in a concrete mass media debate. In the cases of human genome research and stem cell research, three discourse coalitions can be shown, each having a different weight and therefore, a different discursive "power" in the coverage.##

 

 

 

 

 

SCHMIDT, BETTINA E.

Einführung in die Religionsethnologie. Ideen und Konzepte

Berlin: Reimer Verlag 2008

232 pp., Euro 24.90; ISBN 3-496-02813-0

Keywords: religion, anthropology of religion, textbooks

 

Introduction to the anthropology of religion. Ideas and concepts

This textbook for students presents the foundations and central topics of the anthropology of religion: Religion as part of culture and society always being interwoven with questions of identity, social justice, and equal opportunities. The book is systematized in the following way: The object of the anthropological study of religion, history of the anthropology of religion, importance of fieldwork - and then topical areas: creation of the world (theories of myth, cosmos, morality etc.), the practice of religion (ritual theories, pilgrimage, shamanism etc.), religion and society.

 

 

 

SCHOLZ, LEANDER

Der Potlatch der Natur. Elemente einer politischen ‚Ökologie bei Georges Bataille

Paideuma 53.2007:53-78

Keywords: potlatch, Bataille, G., deconstruction, modernism, postmodernism

 

The potlatch of nature. Elements of a political ecology in Georges Bataille

Scholz discusses Bataille”s philosophy, based on his works, but also in comparison with other thinkers who inspired post-modernist deconstruction, such as Foucault, Nietzsche, Heidegger, and he stresses Bataille”s interdisciplinarity influencing philosophy,  theology, sociology, literary and art theory, and anthropology, and here especially Bataille being influenced by anthropological thinkers such as James Frazer, or Marcel Mauss.

 

 

 

SCHWINN, THOMAS

Nationale und globale Ungleichheit

Berliner Journal für Soziologie 18.2008:8-31

Keywords: global inequality, national inequality, globalization, national state, world classes, middle class, order and state, transnationalism, inequality

 

National and global inequality

##The impact of globalization on the structure of social inequality is controversially discussed in actual debates. The national focused research is challenged by globalists. The article concentrates on the problem of order and shows how this is solved by the national structures of social inequality. In the next step the reasons for and against the national solution are presented. Finally the possibility of transnational constituting structures of social inequality is examined. How probable is the structuration of global inequality if basic elements of order are missing on this level?##

 

 

 

SIGGELKOW, INGEBORG (Ed.)

Symbole und Werte

(Kulturwissenschaften 4)

Frankfurt/M.: Lang Verlag 2008

147 pp., Euro 34.10; ISBN 3-631-57206-1

Keywords: symbols, values, magical thinking, spatiality, punitive practice, moral communication, honorary office, Corporate Social Responsibility, youth

 

Symbols and values

This collection of articles deals with symbols and values in concrete cases as well as in general, contemplating functions, effects, etc.

MEYER, KLAUS: Das Ende von West-Berlin [The end of West Berlin]

JEREMIAS, XENIA VALESKA: Virtueller Raum - Räumlichkeit im Wandel [Virtual space - changing spaciality]

MESINOVIC, SVEN ASIM: über Flüssiges als Wert [On fluidity as a value]

SALZWEDEL, HARTMUT: Magisches, symbolisches und reales Denken [Magical, symbolic, and real thinking]

SCHWARZ-SCHILLING, MARIE-LUISE: Das Gehirn, seine Gefühle und der Wertewandel [The brain, ist feelings, and value change]

WERPUP, DAGMAR: Die Giftmörderin Gesche Gottfried. Ein Beitrag zum Wandel der Strafpraxis im frühen 19. Jahrhundert [The poison murderer Gesche Gottfried. Changing punitive practice in the early 19th century]

RECK, SIEGRIED: Moralische Kommunikation. Abgrenzungen mit empirischen und praktischen Absichten [Moral communication. Demarcations with empirical and practical intent]

B‚ÖHM, MARGARETE: Wertewandel und historisches Erbe. Ein Beitrag zum Thema Erwerbsarbeit [Value change and historical heritage. A contribution to gainful employment]

SIGGELKOW, INGEBORG: Ehrenamt und Politik. Zum Arbeitsbegriff der Bürgergesellschaft [Honorary office and politics. On the notion of work in bourgeois society]

FRANKEN-WENDELSTORF, REGINA: Welche Werte für Unter-nehmen? Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) und Multistake-holderinitiativen im Diskurs [Which values for corporations? Corporate Social Responsibility and Multi-stakeholder initiatives in discourse]

DRINCK, BARBARA: Jugend ohne Schulabschluss - was wird in Zukunft? [Youth without school graduation - what the future has in store]

 

 

 

SOUZA, JESSE

Die Naturalisierung der Ungleichheit. Ein neues Paradigma zum Ver-ständnis peripherer Gesellschaften

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2008

184 pp., Euro 29.90; ISBN 3-531-15430-5

Keywords: inequality, peripheral societies, equality, exclusion, Taylor, C., Bourdieu, P., modernity, moral hermeneutics, capital, subalternity, values 

 

The naturalization of inequality. A new paradigm for understanding peripheral societies

Souza develops a theoretical alternative to dominant paradigms of modernization theory and thus contributes to the globalization discourse. He constructs a theory of society taking the many institutional variations of one core structure of modernity as a starting point (not the result), attempting a synthesis between Charles Taylor (moral hermeneutics) and Pierre Bourdieu (varieties of capital) which form a matrix of possible combinations of different principles. Souza interprets Bourdieu”s capital and the underlying drive for distinction not in a utilitaristic way but as an additional value axis, ignored by Taylor, between the extreme points of inequality and equality, which creates a complex scenario of a “multiple modernity”, which comes differently according to location and culture. Souza exemplifies this in the case of Brazil, taking e.g. the modernist pattern of authenticity (going back to religious sources) which is combined with a “naturalized” idea of inequality in a way that produces the institutional form of a principle of “subaltern” citizenship - which results in the “naturally” accepted exclusion of large parts of the population.

SPITTLER, GERD

Founders of the anthropology of work. German social scientists of the 19th and early 20th centuries and the first ethnographers

(Ethnologie. Forschung und Wissenschaft 14)

Berlin: Lit Verlag 2008

316 pp., Euro 29.90; ISBN 3-8258-0780-1

Keywords: work, anthropology of work, Marx, K., Weber, M., Weule, K., Thurnwald, R., Malinowski, B.

 

##Work is vital for most individuals and for every society. Yet it leads a Cinderella-like existence within social anthropology. Even today we can learn from older social scientists like Karl Marx, Wilhelm Heinrich Riehl, Karl Bücher, Eduard Hahn, Wilhelm Ostwald, and Max Weber. Comparing industrial and non-industrial work, they were interested in the character of work as performance, play or ethical deed, and as rational action. Due to a lack of ethnographic studies, the empirical basis of their analysis remained weak. A serious ethnography of work was started by Karl Weule, Richard Thurnwald, and Bronislaw Malinowski. Having close links to the older social scientists they introduced new perspectives based on fieldwork in Africa and Melanesia.##

Following an introduction of several literary and philosophical forerunners (such as Novalis, Schlegel, Herder, Kant, Hegel...) the thinkers named in the abstract are presented in detail regarding their contribution to the area of work.

 

 

 

THELEN, SARAH

Mentale Kultur und Immigration. Einwanderungsländer zwischen humanitärem Anspruch und kultureller Selbstaufgabe?

(Semiotik der Kultur 9)

Berlin: Lit Verlag 2008

92 pp., Euro 19.90; ISBN 3-8258-1515-8

Keywords: humanitarianism, values, cultural values, immigration and values, semiotics

 

Mental culture and immigration. Immigration countries between humani-tarian claims and cultural self-sacrifice

Present-day Europe is one of the most humanitarian cultural areas in the world - but for how long will Europe be able to defend this in the face of immigrants practicing other cultural/political values? Due to its humanitarian values migrants are allowed to practice other values which disregard European ones. Using a cultural-semiotic approach the book focuses on current aspects of migration which are socially relevant. In doing so the development of the modern idea of culture and ways of appropriating a culture (like understanding alterity, language, migration theory, integration, rights) are portrayed, followed by a number of concrete cases (such as enforced marriage, genital mutilation, boat people, special rules for Muslims in schools, etc.).

 

 

 

TUNIS, ANGELIKA

Ethnologie und Kunst. Zwei integrierte Partner oder strittige Pole?

Baessler-Archiv 56.2008:25-34

Keywords: art history and anthropology, anthropology and art history, indigenous art

 

Anthropology and the arts. Two integrated partners, or debatable oppo-sition?

##This is a plea for closer cooperation of art historians and anthropologists. The history of awareness of the fact that other cultures than Europeans alone recognise and produce art, is chronologically presented. The handling and evaluation of indigenous art is discussed. First admission of African Art as academic discipline at universities in the States, first PhD in 1957, later opening of the first Museum of African Arts in Washington DC in 1987. The history of dealing with the so called non-western art in Europe goes back to the late 19th century but with lesser consequences as public institutions were concerned. Discrepancy of the European evaluation of works of art and indigenous categories of art is discussed.##

 

 

 

WAGNER, PHILIPP

Moritz Wagner und sein Werk. Kurzbiographie eines wegweisenden deutschen Wissenschaftlers

Münchner Beiträge zur Völkerkunde 12.2008:25-53

Keywords: Wagner, M., biology and ethnology, Darwinism, Ratzel, F.

 

Moritz Wagner and his work. A brief biography of a pathbreaking German scholar

## Moritz Wagner (1813-1887), a contemporary of Charles Darwin, is one of the least known German explorers, biologists and geographers of the 1911, century despite his great scientific achievements. Between 1836 and 1860 lengthy travels led him to Algeria, the Near and Middle East as well as to North-, Central- and South-America. Through his own field experience he made valuable scholarly contributions to biology, geography and ethnography. Stimulated by Darwin's publication “On the Origin of Species”, he put forward two theories (the “Law of Migration of Organisms” in 1868 and the “Law of Separations” in 1870). Both of these laws, he was convinced, supported the principles of evolution as postulated by Darwin. But Darwin and his adherents did not seize on his theories, nor support them. So Wagner and his scientific work on biology fell into oblivion. It was nearly a century before Ernst Mayr revived Wagner's theory of speciation by isolation and made today's biologists familiar with it. Besides his biological studies Wagner influenced the entire concept of biogeography as strongly as Friedrich Ratzel. Moritz Wagner was rooted in the tradition of the German classical school of geography in the first half of the 19th century. It is Wagner's work which marks the commencement of a new era of German geography. The present article is a first contribution towards a review of the life and scientific work of Moritz Wagner and a survey of his extensive travels and his journalistic, partly politically motivated, activities.##

 

 

 

WIERLACHER, ALOIS & REGINA BENDIX (Eds.)

Kulinaristik. Forschung - Lehre - Praxis

(Wissenschaftsforum Kulinaristik 1)

Berlin: Lit Verlag 2008

451 pp., Euro 24.80; ISBN 3-8258-1081-8

Keywords: culinaristics, food, drink, cooking

 

Culinaristics. Research - Teaching - Practice

Culinaristics is a multidisciplinary contribution across areas and fields in the cultural and life sciences. The contributions in the book put visions, research, and initiatives generated under the auspices of the German Academy of Culinaristics into practice. The authors are scholars and representatives of gastronomy, the food industry, the media, professions, and cultural institutes. They cover topics ranging from the cultural rootedness of food and drinking behavior, cooking, and hospitality, to ritual, gastronomic, gender specific, cultural political, philosophical, economic, theological, semiotic, and communicative aspects of the connections of culture, communication, and cuisine.

##Eating and drinking as individual activities or social institutions pattern human life across the globe and in all cultural and intercultural settings. Food and drink fulfill basic nutritional needs, but they also contribute to communication, shape the rhythm of the day and the year and constitute fundamental notions of hospitality. Both in theory and practice, culinary systems are constituting components of cultural systems. To circumscribe the complex tasks entailed in researching this field and transferring knowledge gained into areas of culinary arts and practice and thus enlightening theory and practice reciprocally, Alois Wierlacher has coined the term ,culinaristics”...

The contributions in this volume describe essential aspects of culinaristics. They seek to circumscribe this multidimensional and multidisciplinary field of cultural research which naturally also includes components from the natural sciences and the fields of gastronomical knowledge...##

 

 

 

ZEITSCHRIFT FüR KULTURAUSTAUSCH

Stuttgart: Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen 58.2008

Keywords: climate, democracy, Scandinavia, change in Turkey

 

The individual issues deal with the following topics:

58,1.2008: Ganz oben. Die nordischen Länder [On top. The Nordic countries]

58,2.2008: Heiße Zeiten. Wie uns das Klima verändert [Hot times. Ho climate changes us]

58,3.2008: Wir haben die Wahl. Von neuen und alten Demokratien [We have the choice: Of new and old democracies]

58,4.2008: Atatürks Erben. Die Türken im Aufbruch [Atatürk”s heirs. The Turks on the point of emerging]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

AFRICA

 

 

 

AHRENS, ELKE

Lokale Märkte in Mosambik. Handel, Gender und Sozialbeziehungen

(Rurale Geschlechterforschung 9)

Berlin: Lit Verlag 2008

185 pp., Euro 19.90; ISBN 3-8258-1860-9

Keywords: gender relations, markets and gender, trade and transformations, transformations and trade, gender and trade, women and trade

 

Local markets in Mozambique. Trade, gender, and social relations

Ahrens presents an overview of markets and social relations of traders in precolonial and colonial times, and includes results of her empirical research in the province of Manica (Mozambique). In this time of complex transformations - from war to peace, from planned economy, from socialism to democracy - everywhere small marketplaces emerge which become, for men and women in distinct ways, a location of societal and economic reintegration. So Ahrens introduces the theoretical background, development of markets, transformation processes in Mozambique, markets in the region of Manica, the social condition of traers, and typical patterns of action in petty trade.

 

 

 

ALBER, ERDMUTE, SJAAK VAN DER GEEST & SUSAN REY-NOLDS WHYTE (Eds.)

Generations in Africa. Connections and conflicts

(Beiträge zur Afrikaforschung 33)

Berlin: Lit Verlag 2008

416 pp., Euro 39.90; ISBN 3-8258-0715-3

Keywords: generations, age, intergenerational conflict, conflict and age, Khwe, migrants, umcwasho, Aids, religiosity, sexuality, Valentine's Day, teenage mothers, kinship

 

##Though long neglected in anthropological research, the connections and conflicts between generations are at the heart of social processes. In this book, sixteen studies examine relations between generations of kin and between historical and political generations... Together they reinvigorate and expand the old anthropological interest in generation, showing how necessary it is to understanding contemporary African societies.##

REYNOLDS WHYTE, SUSAN, ERDMUTE ALBER & SJAAK VAN DER GEEST: Generational connections and conflicts in Africa: an introduction

KYADDONDO, DAVID: Respect and autonomy: children's money in eastern Uganda

ROTH, CLAUDIA: 'Shameful!' The inverted intergenerational contract in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso

NYAMBEDHA, ERICK OTIENO: Sharing food: grandmothers and 'the children of today' in western Kenya

MAZZUCATO, VALENTINA: Transnational reciprocity: Ghanaian migrants and the care of their parents back home

BODEN, GERTRUD: 'The young people do what they want': negotiating intergenerational relationships among the Khwe of Namibia

PRINCE,  RUTH: Struggling for growth in western Kenya: modernity, tradition, generation and gender

REIS, RIA: Inventing a generation: the revitalisation of umcwasho in Swaziland in response to the HIV/AIDS crisis

DONGEN, ELS VAN: 'That was your time ... this time is ours. Memories and intergenerational conflicts in South Africa

LE MEUR, PIERRE-YVES: Between emancipation and patronage: changing intergenerational relationships in central Benin

BELLAGAMBA, ALICE: Today's elders, yesterday's youth: generations and politics in the 20th century Gambia

BOURDILLON, MICHAEL: Children and supporting adults in child-led organisations

STROEKEN, KOEN: Tanzania's 'new generation': the power and tragedy of a concept

DEA, DATA: Changing youth religiosity in Ethiopia: a generational perspective

BOCHOW, ASTRID: Valentine's Day in Ghana: youth, sex and secrets

RINGSTED, METTE LINE: Collisions in life-courses: teenage motherhood and generational relations in north-east Tanzania

VAN DER GEEST, SJAAK: Wisdom, an intergenerational gift? Notes from Kwahu-Tafo, Ghana

 

 

 

AMBORN, HERMANN

Dr. Freud Was Not a Kafa. A Classical Case of Anthropological Overinterpretation from Ethiopia

Anthropos 103.2008:15-32

Keywords: kalacca, phallus, orientalism, cosmic energies

 

##A significant ceremonial object in southern Ethiopia is a headdress called kalacca. Its association with a phallus by Westerners has become an unquestioned topos. The article shows how prejudiced European ideas - here Freudian ideas - take a foreign object's external appearance for their interpretation, which is then, due to a lack of self-reflection, “orientalized.” This projection onto the ideas of others blocks access to indigenous conceptions. Makers of kalacca and those entitled to wear them emphasize its sacred meaning, identifying it as a socioreligious mediator able to bundle positive and negative cosmic and spiritual energies. Considered within the broader framework, the kalacca belongs to those substances which are capable of creating and representing relations with the supernatural.##

 

 

 

ANTHONISSEN, CHRISTINE & BERND MEYER

Ärzte fragen, Patienten antworten - oder auch nicht. Kommunikation in einem südafrikanischen Gesundheitsposten für antiretrovirale Therapie (ART)

Curare 31.2008:221-230

Keywords: Antiretroviral Therapy, bilingualism, HIV, Aids

 

##Doctors ask questions, and Patients respond (or not): communication in a South-African clinic for antiretroviral therapy (ART)

This paper investigates some of the communicative features of discourses mediated by bilingual employees in the context of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in South Africa. Since 2002, the South African government aims at providing ART for all affected communities. Bilingual employees play an important role in this enterprise because health workers and patients often do not belong to the same linguistic and ethnic group and sometimes even do not share a Lingua Franca. Therefore, these employees act as cultural and linguistic mediators, also in during doctor-patient consultations. Although their participation is often indispensable, their institutional status is low.##

 

BIEL, MELHA ROUT

Elite im Sudan - Bedeutung, Einfluss und Verantwortung

(Europäische Hochschulschriften. Reihe XXXI: Politikwissenschaft 553)

Frankfurt/M.: Lang Verlag 2008

287 pp., Euro 49.80; ISBN 3-631-57115-6

Keywords: elites, nationbuilding, political elites, reform of elites, democracy

 

Elite in Sudan - Meaning, influence, and responsibility

In this book the process of Sudanese state- and nationbuilding and the role of political elites is analyzed. The topic was chosen because of long, persisting political, economic, and social unrest which lead to the question what kind of solution is imaginable, and how elites might support change. What is the part of elites in the wars and instability? How have elites been recruited and changed during Sudanese state and nationbuilding? The author presents ways to solve present challenges which include the contribution of Sudanese elites and commitment by the international community. The chapters deal with (political and economic) elite concepts and theories first, then elite formation/construction in Sudan generally and in modern times, and the setting in Sudan after the Peace Treaty of 2005 (Comprehensive Peace Agreement). The conclusion discusses nation-building and a compromise regarding the elites, related contexts, and proposes a number of reform measures.

 

 

 

BOESEN, ELISABETH

Tribal Culture, World Culture, Youth Culture. Wodaabe Dancers on Multiple Stages

Sociologus 58.2008:143-168

Keywords: tribal culture, world culture, youth culture. Wodaabe dancers, Fulbe-Woodabe, dance, beauty cult, self-affirmation, nomads, herders

 

##The term "youth culture" is generally linked with ideas of renewal, breaking with traditional norms and values, opposition and rebellion. This conception stems from the fact that, in western societies, "youth" is first and foremost associated with adolescence and puberty conflicts. In the case of the Nigerien Fulbe-Wodaabe however youth (sukanaaku) is not regarded in the same way as a phase of personal development but is rather identified with specific competencies and social responsibilities. Here, youth constitutes the most important realm of cultural self-manifestation and affirmation. The central institution of this youth culture are the male dances which are performed in the context of the important seasonal lineage meetings.

In recent times, these dances have become a medium of exchange with the outer world. The "beauty cult" of the Wodaabe attracts photographers, camera teams and tourists and it also represents an important factor for migration to urban centres and to Europe. As adorned dancers and photographic subject young Wodaabe migrants experience themselves as part of a "would culture". The article focuses on the link between the forms of cultural self-affirmation which are maintained inside this group of nomadic cattle herders and phenomena of eclectic cultural consumption apostrophized as "world culture".##

 

 

 

BOLLIG, MICHAEL & MATTHIAS ‚ÖSTERLE

Changing Communal Land Tenure in an East African Pastoral System: Institutions and Socio-Economic Transformations among the Pokot of NW Kenya

Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 133.2008:301-322

Keywords: pastoralism, common pool resource management, land tenure, spatial mobility, Pokot, resource management

 

##The management of communal pastures and wells has become a standard topic of research on pastoral societies and on the theory of common pool resource management. The paper sets out to discuss the history of scientific engagement with pastoral land tenure: after a focus on overstocking and degradation caused by irrational accumulating behaviour, the "tragedy of the commons" became an important and politically influential narrative paving the way for the dismantling of pastoral commons. In recent years non-equilibrium qualities of savannah environments and well adapted local knowledge on the grazing vegetation were highlighted. The paper then sketches the management of common pool resources by the pastoral Pokot of north-western Kenya over a century. It is argued that institutions of common pool resource management changed profoundly according to specific political and ecological ramifications. Such changes astonishingly have not been the result of incremental change but have been rather abrupt. Major perturbations of the social ecological system (violence, drought) contributed to sudden shifts in the tenure regime.##

 

 

DORSCH, HAUKE

übergangsritus in übersee? - Zum Aufenthalt mosambikanischer Schüler und Studenten in Kuba

Afrika Spectrum 43.2008:225-244

Keywords: rites of passage, passage rites, communitas, liminality, Turner, V., Gennep, A. v.

 

##Rites of passage overseas? - On the sojourn of Mozambican students and scholars in Cuba

Since 1977 Mozambican students are being sent to Cuba for secondary, higher or technical education. This article analyses this collective experience as a modernized version of rites of passage, aiming at preparing the respective initiates for life in modern Mozambican society. After presenting a short overview of Cuban African relations since 1959 and the experiences of Mozambican students in Cuba, the usefulness of the 'classical' approaches in this field, Gennep's concept of 'rites de passage' and Turner's ideas of 'communitas' and 'liminality', are being discussed. Arguing in favour of the usefulness of these concepts the article nevertheless criticizes underlying static concepts of society that ignore the dynamic aspects of society.##

 

 

 

DREWS, ANNETTE

Die Kraft der Musik. Afrikanische Heilungsrituale in Westafrika und in der Diaspora im kulturanthropologischen Vergleich (Brasilien, Togo, Marokko)

(Ethnologie 33)

Berlin: Lit Verlag 2008

154 pp., Euro 29.90; ISBN 3-8258-1074-0

Keywords: music and healing, healing and music, rituals of healing, Gnava, Voodoo, Candomblé, Feldenkrais, M.

 

The power of music. African healing rituals in West Africa and in the diaspora in cultural-anthropological comparison (Brazil, Togo, Morocco)

The author analyzes processes of exchange between spirituality, knowledge, and intercultural encounter in African healing rituals in the three countries. Conflicts based on polarities such as men and gods, tradition and modernity, Gnava and tourists, ar the framework for growth and creativity which become transformed through the power of music. In describing the healing rituals the author includes much personal involvement in the field process (reflecting equality) and contemplates questions of healing in general, ending with comparisons of the Feldenkrais method of “healing”.

 

 

 

EBERLEI, WALTER

Wachsender Einfluss zivilgesellschaftlicher Akteure in afrikanischen Entwicklungsprozessen

Afrika Spectrum 43.2008:309-332

Keywords: civil society, agency, development, poverty reduction, Habermas, J., democratization

 

## The  growing influence of Civil Society actors in African development processes

During the first decade of the 21st century, development politics in Sub-Saharan Africa is undergoing significant changes: a new role for the state and its growing scope for strategic manoeuvres, remarkable changes in the international aid regime as well as the rise of vibrant civil societies. The article focuses on the latter. The author argues that a new generation of participatory processes has emerged: African civil societies have started entering the macro level of politics. The processes around the Poverty Reduction Strategies demonstrate this. Based on Habermas' distinction between communicative power and administrative power, prospects and limitations for the interplay between the state and civil society are discussed. Regarding the significance of civil society participation, a mixed picture emerges (three country groups are distinguished). However, the author concludes that the newly evolved voices from civil society and their growing communicative power will play a significant role in future African politics.##

 

 

 

EGUAVOEN, IRIT

Killer Cults on Campus: Secrets, Security and Services Among Nigerian Students

Sociologus 58.2008:1-25

Keywords: sodalities, secret cults, killer cults, violence and cults, campus cults, conflict settlement

 

##Many students died due to violent secret campus cult activities in the past decade. The article describes the sodalities and shows how they are perceived in the public discourse. It further illuminates how the ambiguous perception of campus cultism complicates the eradication of cult-related violence. It argues that campus cults are twilight institutions which on one hand provide insecurity on campus by stoking fears and promote violent conflict settlements but on the other hand also act as security providers.##

 

 

 

ELISCHER, SEBASTIAN

Do African parties contribute to democracy? Some findings from Kenya, Ghana and Nigeria

Afrika Spectrum 43.2008:175-201

Keywords: democratization, clientelism, ethnicity, parties (political)

 

##It is often said that ethnic and clientelistic parties are bad for democracy. Empirical testing of this claim has been hindered by lack of agreement on what constitutes an ethnic or clientelistic party. This paper proposes a conceptualization and operationalisation of different party types as part of a succinct typology of parties. The usefulness of the empirical typology of political parties is then verified for three African countries: Ghana, Kenya, and Nigeria. In addition, 'democratic' party behaviour, both within parties and among them is investigated. Subsequently, the claim about the systemic consequences of party types is tentatively tested with a comparative design covering three African cases that display variation on both causes and outcomes. The findings indicate that programmatic parties behave most democratically and that, moreover, there seems to be a relationship between a party's internal democracy and the way it interacts with other parties.##

 

 

 

FALGE, CHRISTIANE

Countering Rupture: Young Nuer in New Religious Movements

Sociologus 58.2008:169-195

Keywords: religious strategies, diaspora, civil war, moral economy, Nuer, inter-generational conflict

 

##This article deals with the religious strategies, a group of young Nuer from the Ethio-Sudanese borderland and the diaspora applies to actively engage in the challenges the global and civil war in Sudan (1983-2005) thrusts upon them. It looks at how the Nuer reconstruct their moral economy in war and exile and at the significance religious movements take in this process during times of social upheaval in the past and today. The paper specifically alludes to the various ways with which different actors who participate in these movements try to strike a balance between an outward and an inward orientation as a non-western alternative to social transformation. Christianity and reasons for conversion as well as re-conversion among this group of Nuer thereby radically differ from those previously described among the Nuer in Sudan.

By examining the strategies this group develops to transform their societies, it also highlights the young generations' simultaneous belonging to different social spheres. Hence, the article argues that the young generation, despite existing intergenerational conflict, competition, disagreements with and partial exclusion of their elders, nevertheless simultaneously harmonizes and cooperates with the latter. It is in this way that the article also re-thinks the overall proclamation of intergenerational conflict in Africa.##

 

 

 

FISCHER, ANJA

Nomaden der Sahara. Handeln in Extremen

Berlin: Reimer Verlag 2008

191 pp., Euro 29.90; ISBN 3-496-02805-5

Keywords: nomads, economy of nomads, gender and nomads

 

Sahara nomads. Acting in extreme settings

Fischer documents economic action of Kel Ahaggar nomads (Tuareg): women, children, and men - in a detailed way. This is done based on a nomadological approach taking economic action as a social process, showing complex interrelationships of nomadic everyday life. The final analysis discusses nomadic strategies in a collective convention of acting. She defines six areas of nomadic work life: the body, textile covers of the body, the tent, green valleys, faraway places, the universe. In describing economic action, traditional tasks of women, children, and men are described, followed by a “portrait” of a typical day. The last chapter presents various motivations (necessities, norms, values) for work.

 

 

 

GREINER, CLEMENS

Zwischen Ziegenkraal und township. Migrationsprozesse in Nordwest-Namibia

(Kulturanalysen 8)

Berlin: Reimer Verlag 2008

284 pp., Euro 39,-; ISBN 3-496-02817-8

Keywords: migration, economy of migration, culture of migration, multi-ethnic farms, farms and migration

 

Between goats” kraal and township. Migration processes in Northwest Namibia

For South African societies migration processes are of central importance, and the author asks for the economic, historical, and socio-cultural dynamics underlying them. Greiner analyzes the multifaceted and complex exchange processes in the arid Kunene region (Fransfontein) in Northwestern Namibia in the case of communal, multi-ethnic farms. Greiner first discusses theoretical foundations and methodological questions of his fieldwork, then possible comparison of urban and rural survey data. Historical background of the colonial and Apartheid periods is described, the ecological situation of the area, to explain the emergence of the farms. Chapter 5 deals with the ethnographic background - living conditions on the farms, combined with portraying social, economic and demographic structures. The urban research areas of Windhoek and Walvis Bay are described, and results of the study are presented in a circulation model, while chapters 7 to 9 have an in-depth analysis and description of aspects of the dynamics and structure of these circulations, including transfer networks. The last chapter summarizes, and presents open questions and future research.

 

 

 

HAGMANN, TOBIAS & ALEMMAYA MULUGETA

Pastoral conflicts and state-building in the Ethiopian lowlands

Afrika Spectrum 43.2008:19-37

Keywords: pastoral conflict, conflict, violence, pastoralism, state-building, transhumant herders

 

##This paper draws attention to the central role played by the Ethiopian state in reconfiguring contemporary (agro-)pastoral conflicts in its semi-arid lowlands. Contrary to primordialist and environmental conflict theories of pastoralist violence, we shed light on the changing political rationality of inter-group conflicts by retracing the multiple impacts of state-building on pastoral land tenure and resource governance, peacemaking and customary authorities, and competition over state resources. Based on an extensive comparative review of recent case studies, post-1991 administrative decentralisation is identified as a major driving force in struggles for resources between transhumant herders in Ethiopia's peripheral regions. Our analysis emphasises the politicisation of kinship relations and group identities and the transformation of conflict motives under the influence of the gradual incorporation of (agro-)pastoral groups into the Ethiopian nation-state. Ethnic federalism incites pastoralists to engage in parochial types of claim-making, to occupy territory on a more permanent basis and to become involved in 'politics of difference' with neighbouring groups.##

 

 

 

HAHN, HANS PETER

Zur Ethnologie des Konsums in Afrika

Paideuma 53.2007:199-220

Keywords: consumerism, ethnography of consumerism

 

On the anthropology of consumerism in Africa

Following a brief general discussion of consumerism, consumerism in Africa is sketched under four headings: consumerism contexts of petty and great property, in situations of expansion of goods, in cultural appropriation, and finally consumerism as everyday action.

 

 

 

HAHN, HANS PETER (Ed.)

Consumption in Africa. Anthropological Approaches

(Beiträge zur Afrikaforschung 37)

Berlin: Lit Verlag 2008

207 pp., 29.90; ISBN 3-8258-0725-2

Keywords: consumption, material culture, consumer goods, circulation of goods, Kel Ewey, Tuareg, Hausa, Kasena

 

##The study of consumption, including such aspects as social differentiation, communication and the change of needs, has become a major field of study within material culture research. This volume unites a number of ethnographic case studies documenting a wide range of local practices with regard to consumer goods. Although based on the acquisition of globally circulating goods, consumption in Africa is appropriated and, thus, becomes part of the local material culture.

The contributions of this volume are the outcome of a workshop held at the African Studies Centre at Bayreuth University. Each chapter deals with the social dynamics engendered by new modes of consumption in specific areas (C‚Ñ¢te d'Ivoire, Zambia, Tanzania, Nigeria, Burkina Faso and Niger).##

HAHN, HANS PETER: Consumption, Identities and Agency in Africa - Introduction

BAUER, KERSTIN: Negotiating Dress Practices in Northern C‚Ñ¢te d'Ivoire: Social Belonging, Social Becoming and Generational Dynamics

TRANBERG HANSEN, KAREN: Filling up the Wardrobe: Decision Making, Clothing Purchases, and Dress Valuation in Lusaka, Zambia

PLATTE, EDITHA: Ostentation as Lifestyle? Conspicuous Consumption, Identity and Home Culture in Northern Nigeria

VIERKE, ULF: 'Ni Fesheni tu' - Just Fashion. Consumption of Beads and Beadwork in Tanzania   

SPITTLER, GERD: Caravaneers, Shopkeepers and Consumers - the Appropriation of Goods among the Kel Ewey Tuareg in Niger         

HAHN, HANS PETER, GERD SPITTLER & MARKUS VERNE: How Many Things Does Man Need? Material Possessions and Consumption in Three West African Villages (Hausa, Kasena and Tuareg) Compared to German Students

 

 

 

HATZKY, CHRISTINE

Bildungspolitik und Transnationalismus im postkolonialen Angola - Dimensionen und Herausforderungen der Kooperation mit Kuba

Afrika Spectrum 43.2008:245-268

Keywords: education policy, transnationalism

 

##Education policy and transnationalism in post-colonial Angola - Angola's cooperation with Cuba and the challenges it poses

The example of post-colonial Angola shows how nationalistic and revolutionary targets were linked to educational reform, and characterized by a transfer of ideology, content and method from the Cuban educational system. This article is based on interviews with witnesses to history and on documents from the archive of the Angolan Department of Education. It analyses different levels of meaning of the comprehensive Angolan reform concept and exposes the ambiguity of the transatlantic Cuban-Angolan cooperation.##

 

 

 

H‚ÖHNE, MARKUS V.

Newspapers in Hargeysa: Freedom of speech in postconflict Somaliland

Afrika Spectrum 43.2008:91-113

Keywords: conflict, democratization, civil war, guerrilla struggle, secession

 

##This article discusses the role of newspapers in the ongoing democratisation process in Somaliland. It shows that, embedded in Somali culture and the recent history of the region, freedom of speech in Hargeysa, the capital of Somaliland, is cultivated by and in print media established after the civil war. Several debates in the newspapers which have centred on sensitive political issues are used to exemplify this point. In some regards, the newspapers continue the legacy of the civil war. Most newspaper owners and journalists participated actively in the guerrilla struggle against the dictatorial regime of Mahamed Siyad Barre. The result of the struggle was secession from Somalia and the independence of Somaliland as a defacto state. The country, however, does not enjoy international recognition, and not all inhabitants support its independence. Against this background the newspapers are actively involved in a 'nation-building' struggle that marginalises a significant part of the population and harbours the potential for renewed civil war in the region.##

 

 

 

JAHN, ALICE

Das Erbe des Ousmane Sembne

Cargo. Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 28.2008:64-67

Keywords: Sembne, O., visual anthropology

 

The heritage of Ousmane Sembne

Jahn recounts life and work of this Senegalese writer and film director of global importance.

 

 

 

 

 

KNEITZ, PETER

Im Land "dazwischen". Die Sakalava-Königreiche von Ambongo und Mailaka (westliches Madagaskar, 17.-19. Jahrhundert)

Anthropos 103.2008:33-63

Keywords: kingdoms, Sakalava

 

In the land “in between”. The Sakalava kingdoms of Ambongo and Mailaka (Western Madagaskar, 17th-19th centuries)

##Ambongo and Mailaka, two major regional units at the west coast of Madagascar, are divided since the 18th century in an important number of smaller and hardly known Sakalava kingdoms. The synthesis of widely dispersed sources reveals their embeddedness in a general context of "in between" the leading Sakalava states of Boeny and Menabe. The importance of Ambongo-Mailaka as an option for less successful members of the dynasty, the important position as a center for independent Sakalava during the 19th century, and the particularities of these relatively isolated kingdoms are relevant elements for the understanding of the historical development of the Sakalava.##

 

 

 

KOHNERT, DIRK

Entfremdung und Ausgrenzung: Afrikas neuer Nationalismus in Zeiten der Globalisierung

Sociologus 58.2008:197-221

Keywords: alienation, exclusion, nationalism, globalization, new nationalism, grass-roots movements

 

##Alienation and Exclusion: Africa's New Nationalism in the Time of Globalisation

The new nationalism in Africa and elsewhere shows remarkable differences both in its roots and its impact, compared with that of national independence movements of the early 1960s. Contrary to the first nationalism, the second is less prone to include than to exclude populations; alienation, xenophobia and its political instrumentalization are its curse. The new nationalism has been shaped decisively by the consequences of globalization and by the increasing cleavages between the poor and the rich. Nowadays, structures of nationalism and nation-states differ more than in the past. Frequently, the new nationalism is rooted in populist grass-root movements which do not necessarily share the same interest as the ruling class or the state. This makes for its extraordinary political and social ambiguity and brisance.##

 

 

 

K‚ÖNIGHOFER, MARTINA

The new ship of Zion. Dynamic diaspora dimensions of the African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem

(Afrika und ihre Diaspora 7)

Wien: Lit Verlag 2008

139 pp., Euro 19.90; ISBN 3-8258-1055-9

Keywords: diaspora, Hebrew Israelites, Jews, repatriation, migration, Zion, identity, virtual reality, Yah

 

##The New Ship of Zion explores the dynamic Diaspora dimensions of the African Hebrew Israelites, a spiritual movement of African Americans who have traced their roots to Zion. With the successful establishment of thriving model communities in Israel and Ghana they have built up a framework for repatriation to the motherland.

The resulting constructions of ethnic and cultural identity are the subjects of this book. It also sheds light on the ideological concepts of other communities that travel the same waters as the New Ship of Zion, such as the Rastafarians.##

 

 

 

LOW, CHRIS

Khoisan medicine in history and practice

(Quellen zur Khoisan-Forschung 20)

Köln: Köppe Verlag 2008

338 pp., Euro 64,-; ISBN 3-89645-148-4

Keywords: Khoisan medicine, medicine of Khoisan, change and Khoisan, Schapera, I., witchcraft, healing and Khoisan, shamanism

 

##In summary, this book examines present understanding of Khoisan medicine as a reflection of the ongoing ethnography of Khoisan peoples. I seek to highlight the continued influence of the long term on San and Khoi medicine. I explore the possibility that the long term relationship between the Khoisan and their environment has contributed to a Khoisan way of thinking and doing medicine. In addition to outlining some significant contemporary healing practices, I consider the effects of recent change on traditional Khoisan healing strategies. As a means of examining the implications and realities of change, in the last section of the book, I explore the ingredients of Khoisan “old time” and “new time”. This is a way in which contemporary Khoisan talk about their lives...

In recognition of the fact that a history of Khoisan healing requires a history of ideas, I have focused part of my analysis on understanding. This has necessitated presenting both Khoisan understanding and the interpretation of Khoisan by “Western” commentators. I have used insights from my research to critique Western interpretations and to build upon those that seem to best represent the Khoisan. By examining Khoisan in this reflective manner, I hope to have narrowed academic distance from the Khoisan and historical distance from the Khoisan past.##

 

 

 

LUIG, UTE

Sorcery Accusations as Social Commentary. A Case Study of Mulago/ Uganda

Curare 31.2008:231-239

Keywords: sorcery, witchcraft, accusations (sorcery), migration, competition

 

##African cities in particular are assumed to be centres of social constraint because of their economic differentiation and tribal heterogeneity. This paper tries to scrutinize this assumption by a case study of Mulago, a quarter of Kampala/Uganda. It starts from a hypothesis of Mitchell who supposed witchcraft accusations to occur, due to the relative anonymous way of live in urban areas, rather within groups characterised by competition and envy than among individuals. In the case of Mulago, two types of social relationships are mainly affected by ideas of witchcraft: those among workmates and those who live relations of love (husband-prostitute) that are socially not accepted. For both types Mitchell”s categorization is correct since these relations are personal and competing. A more specific analysis proves his assumptions even more true. The relationships between neighbours as well as among relatives are free from witchcraft ideas although they are, due to the particular living conditions at Mulago, very close. In contrast to the practise of witchcraft accusations in the rural areas this practice seems to be effectuated on the one hand by an environment that is experience as hostile (e.g., a high crime rate) and therefore favours neighbours solidarity and, on the other hand, by the possibility to limit and, in extreme cases, to cut personal relations and thus reduce social tensions. Although in witchcraft accusations quarrels among lovers dominate markedly in terms of figures and indicate sexual motives, in view of the particularity of the witchcraft accusation within the examined urban milieu it can be said that not so much individual ambitions or a lack of social distance cause these accusations but rather the competition for a rare good - be it a desired job or the essential keep by a man.##

 

 

 

MEYER, CHRISTIAN

Persuasive Interaktion und soziale Beeinflussung. Zur Mikrophysik der Macht in einem Wolof-Dorf Nordwest-Senegals

Paideuma 54.2008:151-172

Keywords: Wolof, power and Wolof, persuasive interaction, social influence, communication, hierarchy and communication

 

Persuasive interaction and social influence. On the microphysics of power in a Wolof village in Northwestern Senegal

Meyer shows how in a Northwest Senegalese village social hierarchy is generated, questioned, or acknowledged by unspectecular instruments of everyday communicative interaction - quasi “micro-physically”. This is done by analyzing conversations in the village central place, or farms, when participants try to “move” others into certain social positions by the means of questions, answers, accusations, critique, quarrel, mockery, or jokes. Some of the accused or thus “positioned” people react to refute the action, or try to establish other hierarchies or social relations by their communicative behavior.

 

 

 

NADI, DALILA

Algerien als Endziel von Migrationen - eine vergleichende Studie zu subsaharischen und chinesischen Migranten

Afrika Spectrum 43.2008:371-392

Keywords: migration, immigration, Chinese-Algerian migration, area studies

 

##Algeria as a Destination of Migrants - A Comparative Study of SubSaharan and Chinese Migrants

Thanks to current high revenues from the gas and oil sectors the Algerian treasury is well-filled. With this capital and the aid of foreign investors, economic and infrastructural problems should be resolved. Primarily China, within the scope of its interests in Africa is taking part of this process of development for approximately the last eight years. Because of the benevolent attitude of the Algerian state towards the Chinese migrant labourers they already form the biggest group of foreign employees in the country and a counter current to the centuries-old subsaharian migration. Both migrations with the final destination Algeria in the course of the last decade and the reactions of Algerian society thereon will be described in this article. This comparative study deals with this phenomenon, which is until now extensively unexplored. It analyses within the context of Global Area Studies and on the base of multidisciplinary research approaches the development of global migration movements and their translocal and local linkages. The aim of this study is to show the range across society and the effect of migration movements in Algeria as well as their potential for the realisation of the planned reform processes for the next years.##

 

 

 

NüNNING, ANSGAR & VERA NüNNING (Eds.)

Einführung in die Kulturwissenschaften. Theoretische Grundlagen - Ansätze - Perspektiven

Stuttgart: Metzler Verlag 2008

392 pp., Euro 19.95; ISBN 3-476-02237-0

Keywords: Cultural sciences, semiotics, literary science, cultural anthropology, historical anthropology, new historicism, cultural materialism, collective memory, gender research, medial cultural sciences

 

Introduction to Cultural Sciences. Theoretical foundations, approaches, perspectives

In this volume, articles on culture notions and -theories, cultural semiotics, literary science and cultural sciences, cultural anthropology, historical anthropology, new historicism, cultural materialism, collective memory, gender research, and medial cultural sciences introduce the general topic, to provide a systematic and comprehensive overview of the field.

 

 

 

OBERHOFER, MICHAELA