Anthropological Abstracts

 

Cultural/Social Anthropology

from German-speaking countries

 

edited by

Ulrich Oberdiek

 

 

 

12. Abstracts of 2011

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

© Ulrich Oberdiek

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

© Ulrich Oberdiek

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

© Ulrich Oberdiek

Contents

 

 

 

Editorial                                                                                              7

                                              

 

General/Theoretical/Historical Studies                                                  9  

 

 

Regional Studies

 

                            Africa                                                                    67                      

 

                            The Americas                                                        83                      

 

                            Asia                                                                    101                              

 

                            Australia & Oceania                                            127  

 

 

                            Europe                                                                133

 

 

Periodicals Scanned                                                                        167                             

 

Author Index                                                                                   169   

 

 

Subject Index                                                                                  177  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

© Ulrich Oberdiek

 

 

 

 

 

Editorial

 

 

 

 

This reference journal is published once a year and represents - in English language – most new publications in the field of cultural/social anthropology published in the German language area (Austria, Germany, Switzerland). Since many of these publications have been written in German, and most of these publications in the field of anthropology are not included in major, English language abstracting services, Anthropological Abstracts (AA) offers an opportunity and convenient source of information for scholars who do not read German, to become aware of socio-cultural anthropological research and publications in German-speaking countries. Included are journal articles, monographs, edited volumes, exhibition catalogs, yearbooks, etc. Occasionally, publications in English, or French, are included as well if the publisher is less well-known internationally and if it is likely that such publications will not be noticed abroad.

Additionally, a printed version of Anthropological Abstracts is published with Lit Publishers, Muenster, Germany.

 

Some technical remarks

This reference journal uses a flexible approach: While publications are represented in the form of abstracts in most cases, for edited volumes the Current Contents method is applied, i.e. only authors and titles appear. So technically, this is a combined approach of an Abstracting Reference Journal and the Current Contents method of listing names and titles only.

Abstracts supplied by authors are marked by ## before and after the abstract. Due to space limitations they may be abbreviated. Up to three editors of an anthology will be listed; if there are more, only the first will appear (added by ‚et al.’).

Only those papers in journals will be abstracted that are relevant to cultural/social anthropology - which mainly applies in the case of interdisciplinary, or predominantly sociological journals. AA also tries to cover subjects related to, or influencing, anthropology, i.e. if texts are relevant for present discourses. Thus, there may be material from history, folklore studies, linguistics, sociology, philosophy, etc., if there is an intersection with present debates in anthropology.

Keywords serve as an "abstract of the abstract" - for a quick assessment of the contents. Page numbers in the Subject Index refer to the page where the Keywords listings appear.

The Subject Index – consisting of the Keywords of abstracts in alphabetical order – do not follow the Thesaurus principle but are chosen rather loosely and generously, according to need, and there is no strict formal rule or ‚normalization’ to limit their number. In many cases, Subject Index terms try to be specific rather than general, in order to reduce the time of searching. Thus, if there is a topic relating to ‚history’, it will be specified: like ‚history (Guinea)’, or ‚history and literacy’, so that users do not have to check all ‚history’ entries.

Regarding alphabetical order, the German Umlaut (ä, ö, ü) will be broken up into ae, oe, ue in the text, but is disregarded in the indexes.

 

The publishers, museums and research institutions must be thanked for their generally prompt deliveries of the books requested for Anthropological Abstracts.

 

 

 

PD Dr. Ulrich Oberdiek

Reader, Institut für Ethnologie, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Germany

 

Contact:

Quäkerst. 7

79102 Freiburg/Germany

Phone+Fax: Germany:  0761/70 72 344

e-mail: Ulrich.Oberdiek@t-online.de


 

 

 

 

 

GENERAL/THEORETICAL/HISTORICAL STUDIES

 

 

 

AHLIN, TANJA

Technology and Cultural (R)evolution: Can E-Health and Telemedicine Give Power to the Patients?

Curare 34.2011:165-172

Keywords: doctor-patient relationship, e-health, telemedicine, power and empower-ment, empowerment (patients), partnership technology, medical anthropology

 

##In medicine, technology may on the one hand support certain economic and political structures, such as dependency of remote local health centers on large clinics in cities. On the other hand, telemedicine and e-health as tools of increasing the circulation of knowledge and information have the opposite effect on the level of the doctor-patient relationship. Thus, they can empower the patients by democratizing knowledge that used to be exclusive to doctors, by forming strong social online networks and by enabling patients to be more involved in communication and decision making with regards to their health and treatment.##

 

 

 

ALLEMANN-GHIONDA, CRISTINA & WOLF-DIETRICH BUKOW (Eds.)

Orte der Diversität. Formate, Arrangements und Inszenierungen

Bielefeld: VS Verlag 2011

245 pp., Euro 29.95; ISBN 3-531-17499-0

Keywords: diversity, urban diversity, cyber diversity, „management“ of diversity, diversity mainstreaming, minorities, majority, ethnicity, gender, civil society

 

Locations of diversity. Formats, arrangements, and performances

Thirteen papers of scholars of various fields discuss the topic in specific cases, and conceptually. The editors plead for interrelating discourses of various disciplines, foster interdisciplinary exchange, and focus on interdisciplinary approaches. They follow discourses of civil society. The book is based on a symposium at the Center for Diversity Studies at Cologne, Germany, in 2009.

ANDERL, GABRIELE

Provenienzforschung am Museum für Völkerkunde Wien

Archiv für Völkerkunde 59-60.2009:1-58

Keywords: museology, provenance

 

Provenance research at the Museum for Anthropology, Vienna

This contribution discusses the special conditions and problems of the provenance of artifacts in ethnographic museums in general and the museum in Vienna in particular. This is illustrated with several cases as examples.

 

 

 

BINDEL, TIM (Ed.)

Feldforschung und ethnographische Zugänge in der Sportpädagogik

(Forum Sportpädagogik 2)

Aachen: Shaker Verlag 2011

279 pp., Euro 49.80; ISBN 3-8440-0317-8

Keywords: sports education, fieldwork and sports, skating, Hip Hop, integration and sports

 

Fieldwork and ethnographic approaches in sports education

BINDEL, TIM: Feldforschung und Sportpädagogik - Erläuterungen zu einer ,,schwierigen Beziehung" [Fieldwork and sports education – a difficult relationship]

HÜNERSDORF, BETTINA: Erziehungswissenschaftliche Ethnographie und Sport [Pedagogical ethnography and sports]

THIELE, JÖRG: ,,Notizen aus der Provinz" - Feldforschung in der Sportpädagogik [Fieldwork in sports education]

ERHORN, JAN & CLAUS KRIEGER: Das Problem der Repräsentation in sportpädagogischen Ethnographien - Reflexion zweier unterschiedlicher Feldzugänge [Representation in sports educational ethnographies]

RICHARTZ, ALFRED, RENE ZOLLER & ALMUT KRAPF: Training beobachten und evaluieren: Forscher als Kontrolleure? Reflexionen über Feldzugang und Feldbeziehungen [Observing and evaluating training]

HUNGER, INA: Empirische Annäherungen an die frühkindliche Bewe-gungswelt unter dem Aspekt ,,Gender" [Empirical approaches to early-childhood movement regarding the gender aspect]

KAMPER, SVENJA: Schüler im Sportunterricht - Ethnographische Unter-richtsforschung zur Rekonstruktion von Schülerpraktiken [Ethnographic teaching research for reconstructing pupils’ practices]

SCHWIER, JÜRGEN: Dem Trendsport auf der Spur - Annäherungen an jugendliche Bewegungspraktiken [Trend sport – Approaches to juvenile movement practices]

STERN, MARTIN: Stil-Kulturen im Trendsport [Style cultures in trend sports]

PETERS, CHRISTIAN: Skating the City - Feldforschung auf der Kölner Domplatte [Fieldwork at the Cologne Cathedral Plaza]

PAVICIC, CHRISTINE: Leben mit Hip Hop - Das Potenzial des Tanzes für die Persönlichkeitsentwicklung [Living with hip hop – The potential of dance for personality development]

PODLICH, CAROLA: Von einer, die auszog, das Forschen zu lernen... [One, who undertook to learn research]

BEHRENS, CLAUDIA: Tänzerische Bewegungsgestaltungsprozesse er-fassen und rekonstruieren - von der Kamera-Ethnographie zum Video-Stimulated-Recall-Interview [Reconstructing dance – from camera ethno-graphy to Video-Stimulated-Recall-Interview]

WEIGELT, LINDA: Berührungen im Sportunterricht in der Wahrnehmung von Lehrenden - eine Deutungsmusterstudie [Touch in sports education in the perception of teachers]

BINDEL, TIM: Forschungswerkstatt Sportethnographie - Chancen und Schwierigkeiten der Vermittlung ethnographischen Arbeitens im Sportstudium [Chances and difficulties in mediating ethnographic work in studying sports science]

TAPPE, SEBASTIAN: Eröffnung des sozialen Raums durch das Skateboard [Opening social space through skateboard]

WEIßNER, CHRISTOPH & JOHN YOUK: Das Verhalten von Co-Akteuren und dessen Einfluss auf Sportler in Trendsportarten am Beispiel des Boulderns [Behavior of co-actors and its influence on athletes in the case of bouldering]

HESKER, LINDA & JOHANNES WULKE: Soziale Integration - ein Weg zum Wohlbefinden im Sport [Social integration – a way to achieve well-being in sports]

UTRECHT, VINCENT: Rituale und Traditionen im Schützenverein [rituals and traditions in the shooting club]

HASTENTEUFEL, HEIKE, CELINE HUPERTZ & ANN-KATHRIN SCHULTE: K(l)eine Highlights - Die Monotonie des Gesundheitssports [Small highlights: The monotony of health sports]

 

 

 

 

BINSBERGEN, WIM VAN (Ed.)

Black Athena comes of age

Münster: Lit Verlag 2011

367 pp., Euro 39.90; ISBN 3-8258-4808-8

Keywords: mankala board-games, geomantic divination, Black Athena thesis, global cultural history, Afrocentrism, civilization

 

##This book reflects the intellectual encounter, over the years, between on the one hand, a group of Dutch scholars studying the Ancient Mediterranean, Ancient Egypt and Africa, and, on the other hand, Martin Gardiner Bernal as one of the most challenging and innovative, but also controversial and criticised, scholars of recent decades. In the 1980s, Bernal delivered his first statements on his Black Athena thesis, vocally claiming with new arguments and a new style of presentation, what the specialists had realised for almost a century: that the roots of western civilisation were to be sought not in Ancient Greece but outside Europe, in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia (and perhaps ultimately in sub-Saharan Africa).

In the 1987 first volume of Black Athena (initially planned to be a tetralogy) Bernal's leading question was not so much 'what really happened in the formative millennia of European proto-history', but rather: 'what processes in the course of two and a half millennia of European intellectual history have made us forget our essential indebtedness to "the Afroasiatic roots of classical civilisation"?'##

BINSBERGEN, WIM VAN: Black Athena Ten Years After: Towards a Constructive Re-Assessment

BERNAL, MARTIN: Responses to Black Athena: General and Linguistic Issues

BEST, JAN: The Ancient Toponyms of Mallia: A post-Eurocentric reading of Egyptianising Bronze Age documents

BINSBERGEN, WIM VAN: Alternative Models of Intercontinental Interaction Towards the Earliest Cretan Script

EGBERTS, ARNO: Consonants in Collision: Neith and Athena recon-sidered

BERNAL, MARTIN: Response to Arno Egberts

BLOK, JOSINE A.: Proof and Persuasion in Black Athena I: The Case of K.O. Müller

BERNAL, MARTIN: Response to Josine Blok

BINSBERGEN, WIM VAN: Rethinking Africa's Contribution to Global Cultural History: Lessons from a comparative historical analysis of mankala board-games and geomantic divination

BINSBERGEN, WIM VAN: Is there a future for Afrocentrism despite Stephen Howe’s dismissive 1998 study?

WOUDHUIZEN, FRED: The bee-sign (Evans no. 86): An instance of Egyptian influence on Cretan hieroglyphic

BINSBERGEN, WIM VAN: The limits of the Black Athena thesis and of Afrocentricity as empirical explanatory models

 

 

 

BRÄUCHLER, BIRGIT

Immaterielles Kulturerbe als Friedensstifter

Sociologus 61.2011:91-115

Keywords: cultural heritage, heritage of culture

 

##Intangible Cultural Heritage as Peacemaker

This contribution discusses the prospects and challenges arising out of a declaration of so-called traditional justice mechanisms as internationally recognised intangible cultural heritage. For long, internationally sponsored post-conflict reconstruction was mainly concerned with the rebuilding of tangible cultural heritage that had been damaged or destroyed during conflict. In contrast, the impact of mass violence on intangible cultural aspects such as social structures, traditional justice mechanisms and values is often ignored due to their invisibility to outsiders, the enormous amount of time needed to rebuild them and the lack of knowledge on how to facilitate this process. This has disastrous effects on post-conflict-situations, especially in cases of neighbours fighting neighbours rather than the state fighting its citizens, which makes conflict resolution and reconciliation even more difficult. However, in places such as Rwanda, East Timor and the Moluccas (Indonesia) it was the re-establishment of broken social relationships of the people concerned that brought reconciliation and sustainable peace.##

 

 

 

BROSZINSKY-SCHWABE, EDITH

Interkulturelle Kommunikation. Missverständnisse – Verständigung

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2011

248 pp., Euro 24.95; ISBN 3-531-17174-6

Keywords: communication, intercultural communication, alterity and understanding, understanding alterity, cultural sciences

 

Intercultural communication. Misunderstandings – understanding

The author discusses difficulties of communication/understanding between cultures in central-European settings, i.e. from a western-sociological perspective. She names examples such as: ‚insider’ language, gestures, different conceptions/apprehensions of time. These culture-specific codes tend to make communication difficult – resulting in social and economic effects, conflict, or culture shock. Therefore, the author argues, professio-nal help in the form of ‚intercultural competence’ and ‚intercultural conflict solution’ is required. Perceiving alterity, changes with global develop-ments/processes she argues as a cultural scientist, and notions such as hybrid cultures, transculturality, multiculturalism refer to these new frames of relating culturally.

 

 

 

BRUMANN, CHRISTOPH

Unser aller Kulturgut: Eine ethnologische Annäherung an das UNESCO-Welterbe

Sociologus 61.2011:19-43

Keywords: UNESCO, cultural heritage, north-south conflict, global regimes

 

##Our Shared Cultural Property: An Anthropological Approach to UNESCO World Heritage

UNESCO’s „World Heritage“ designation has become a globally observed, coveted distinction that strongly influences public ideas about culture. The article reports on multi-sited field research in the complex and contested arena formed by the world Heritage committee, the UNESCO convention secretariat, several expert NGOs and the state representatives. This arena is dominated by written materials, and access to it is subject to certain restrictions, yet ethnographic research proves no less rewarding here than in other, less formal contexts. In response to accusations of Eurocentrism, the designation process has in recent years shifted to everyday heritage, new categories such as cultural landscapes, a broadening of authenticity standards, and concept-driven nominations. European dominance persists, however, and has provoked a North-south conflict in which leading states of the South increasingly challenge advice received from the mostly Euroamerican experts. This reproduces tendencies found in other global regimes, such as that for climate control, and demonstrates the limits of multilateralism in a world that continues to be structured by nation states.##

 

BUKOW, WOLF-DIETRICH ET AL. (Eds.)

Neue Vielfalt in der urbanen Stadtgesellschaft

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2011

237 pp., Euro 29.95; ISBN 3-531-17754-0

Keywords: urban anthropology, diversity and city, multiculturalism, cities and diversity, variety and city, mobility

 

New variety in urban society

Urban spaces are seen as transit and contact locations where differences meet, lifestyles are being negotiated and global influences are interpreted locally in many ways. They become urban everyday life, and the city is generator and catalyst of mobility.

RÖMHILD, REGINA: Global Heimat. Der Alltag junger Migranten in den Widersprüchen der Einwanderungsgesellschaft [Global Heimat. Everyday life of young migrants in the contradictions of immigrant society]

JONUZ, ELIZABETA & ERIKA SCHULZE: Vielfalt als Motor städti-scher Entwicklung. Das Beispiel der Keupstraße in Köln [Variety as a motor of urban development. The case of the Keup Steet in Cologne]

MATTAUSCH-YILDIZ, BIRGIT: Stadt als Transitraum: Ein Blick hinter den Bronx-Mythos [The city as transit space. Behind the scenes of the Bronx myth]

YILDIZ, EROL & MARC HILL: Pragmatisch im Alltag, hegemonial im Diskurs. Vom vielfältigen Umgang mit Migrationsprozessen in Österreich am Beispiel von St. Ruprecht in Klagenfurt [Pragmatic in everyday life, hegemonic in the discourse. On the various dealings with migration processes in Austria in the case of St. Ruprecht, Klagenfurt]

SCHROEDER, JOACHIM: Wenn Schulen Vielfalt nutzen (möchten). Möglichkeiten und Hindernisse im Umgang mit Diversität im Bildungs-system [When schools (want) to utilize variety. Possibilities and hindrances in dealing with diversity in the educational system]

STEUTEN, ULRICH: Heiliger Schrecken – schreckliche Heilige [Sacred horror – horrible saints]

LANZ, STEPHAN: Berliner Diversitäten: Das immerwährende Werden einer wahrhaftigen Metropole [Berlin diversities: The eternal becoming of a real metropolis]

YILDIZ, EROL: Zur sozialen Grammatik der Vielfalt in der globalisierten Stadtgesellschaft [On the social grammar of diversity in the globalized urban society]

KAYA, AYHAN: Political recognition of cultural diversity in Turkey on the way to the European Union

GEIßLER, RAINER: Multikulturalismus – das kanadische Modell des Umgangs mit Diversität [Multiculturalism – the Canadian model of dealing with diversity]

VOLTMER, LEONHARD: Vom Schutz der Minderheit zum Minder-heitenschutz – alte und neue Vielfalt in Südtirol [From protecting minorities to protection laws – old and new diversity in Southern Tyrolia]

TERKESSIDIS, MARK: Integration ist von gestern, „Diversity“ für mor-gen – Ein Vorschlag für eine gemeinsame Zukunft [Integration is out, „diversity“ is for tomorrow – An idea for a common future]

BUKOW, WOLF-DIETRICH: Vielfalt in der postmodernen Stadtgesell-schaft – Eine Ortsbestimmung [Diversity in postmodern urban society]

 

 

 

CASASUS, GILBERT & SABINE HAUPT (Eds.)

Vergleichen? Komparatistische Wissenschaften im Vergleich

(Freiburger sozialanthropologische Studien 31)

Wien: Lit Verlag 2011

167 pp., Euro 29.90; ISBN 3-643-80081-7

Keywords: comparative sciences, comparison, interdisciplinary comparison

 

Comparing? Comparing comparativist sciences

Contributions of 15 authors of various disciplines report, from their respective viewpoints, on comparison, and this – so the editors – represents a panoramic meta-comparison. Possibilities, problems and limits of comparatist methods are described. The editors conclude: It will be important to clearly define the respective function of a comparison or to recognize it if it is an interpretation of a comparison. Objects may show similarities, because there are causal connections between them, or because they emerge from comparable contexts. But analogies can be contingent and meaningless also. Those people comparing should be clear about the purpose why things are seen in relation. The race the normative, There is the normative, convergent, the contrastive and that descriptive comparison. All of them have, depending on the context and cognitive interest, various functions. Those researchers focusing continuities and developments will concentrate on convergent traits, those looking for crises and breaks will enhance contrasts and so on. The idea of a really neutral unperspective comparison is probably obsolete.

 

 

 

DEGELE, NINA & GABRIELE WINKER

Intersektionalität als Beitrag zu einer gesellschaftstheoretisch informierten Ungleichheitsforschung

Berliner Journal für Soziologie 21.2011:69-90

Keywords: intersectionality, inequality, class, gender, body 

 

##Discussing the theoretical linkage between intersectionality, social theory and social inequality

The following article argues that an in-depth analysis of different living conditions requires a theoretical and empirical perspective which does not only take into account class but also other categories of social inequality such as gender, race and body. Departing from the idea that these categories are mutually intertwined, the article suggests an intersectional multi-layeled approach which allows to examine reciprocal effects between class, gender, race and body on three different levels: the level of social structures, the level of identity construction and the level of symbolic representation. Considering the theoretical relationship between the analysis of class and social inequality, the article also intends to understand and explain how these different levels of analysis are interrelated, how the linkage between social categories and levels of social reality have to be methodologically reflected and how they can be made accessible in and through empirical research.##

 

 

 

DILGER, HANSJÖRG & BERNHARD HADOLT (Eds.)

Medizin im Kontext. Krankheit und Gesundheit in einer vernetzten Welt

Frankfurt/M.: Lang Verlag 2010

447 pp., Euro 74.95; ISBN 3-631-57839-1

Keywords: medical anthropology, ethnomedicine, medical anthropology, migrants and health, health and migrants

 

Medicine in context. Illness and health in an integrated world

Contributions in this volume propose to apply a socio-cultural anthropological perspective IF health and disease are to be understood adequately in a global context, pleading for inclusion of social and cultural dynamics in the politics of the heterogeneous and power-laden field of „medicine“.

DILGER, HANSJÖRG & BERNHARD HADOLT: Medizin im Kontext. Überlegungen zu einer Sozial- und Kulturanthropologie der Medizin(en) in einer vernetzten Welt [Reflections on a social and cultural anthropology of medicine(s) in a connected world]

MÜLLER- ROCKSTROH, BABETTE: Ultraschall in Tansania. Ethnogra-phische Explorationen in den Transfer von Medizintechnologie [Ultra-sound in Tanzania. Ethnographic explorations in the transfer of medical technology]

WAGNER, URSULA: ,,Das ist ein Geben und Nehmen." Gewebespende für medizinische Forschung als Form der sozialen Beziehung [Tissue donation for medical research as a form of social relationship]

PAULI, JULIA & SUSANNE BRANDNER: Wem glauben? Eine explo-rative Studie zu Impfentscheidungen von Kölner Eltern zwischen Internet, ärztlicher Autorität und verwandtschaftlichem Vertrauen [An explorative study on vaccination decisions of Cologne parents between internet, physician’s authority, and kinship trust]

HADOLT, BERNHARD & VIOLA HÖRBST: Problemlagen, Anwen-dungskontexte, Nutzungspraktiken. Assistierte Reproduktionstechnolo-gien in Mali und Österreich [Assisted reproductive technologies in Mali and Austria]

KOTTE, GUDRUN: Wochenbetterfahrungen chinesischer Migrantinnen in Berliner Krankenhäusern [Postpartum experiences of Chinese migrants in Berlin hospitals]

BÖHMIG, CHRISTINE: „This is not what I expected - I want to go'" Krankenschwestern zwischen Erwartungen und Realität in einem ghanaischen Krankenhaus [Nurses between expectations and reality in a Ghanaian hospital]

KEHR, JANINA: Geographien der Gefahr und soziale Risiken. Wie Tuberkulose in Ostdeutschland zu einer Migrantenkrankheit wird [How tuberculosis has become a migrants’ disease in Eastern Germany]

SARAIVA, KLARA: Afrobrasilianische Rituale und Therapien in Portugal [Afro-Brazilian rituals and therapies in Portugal]

KNIPPER, MICHAEL: Traditionelle Medizin als strategische Ressource in Ecuador. Indianische Heilkunde im Kontext [Traditional medicine as a strategic resource in Ecuador]

ZENKER, JULIA: Traditionelle Medizin und Afrikanische Renaissance in Südafrika [Traditional medicine and African renaissance in South Africa]

BRUCHHAUSEN, WALTER: Heiltraditionen oder „traditionelle Medi-zin"? Von Förderung und Verweigerung des biomedizinischen Paradigmas in Tansania [Healing traditions or „traditional medicine“? Promoting and refusing the biomedical paradigm in Tanzania]

BESCH, FLORIAN: Rituelle Heilungspraktiken als Ressource einer lokalen Identität traditioneller tibetischer Ärzte in Spiti, Nordwestindien [Ritual healing practices as a resource of local identity among traditional Tibetan physicians in Spiti]

VOSS, EHLER: Mit Artabana auf der Suche nach Gesundheit und Gemeinschaft. Möglichkeiten und Grenzen nichtstaatlicher Gesundheits-vorsorge in Deutschland [Searching for health and community with Artabana. Limits and possibilities of non-state health care in Germany]

SCHULZE, ALEANDER: Gemeindebasierte Krankenkassen im Kontext sozialer Differenzierung. Zur Charakterisierung von Mitgliedem und Nichtmitgliedern im ländlichen Mali [Community-based health insurance companies in the context of social qualification. Characterizing members and non-members in rural Mali]

WLADARSCH, EVELYN: Ein Huhn für die Krankheitsvorsorge. Zukunftsverständnis und Gesundheitssicherung in Burkina Faso [Concepts of future and health care in Burkina Faso]

DILGER, HANSJÖRG: Zwischen health citizenship und der Hoffnung auf Heilung. Urbane Lebensentwürfe im Kontext neoliberaler Gesundheits-versorgung in Dar es Salaam, Tansania [Urban life blueprints in the context of neoliberal health care in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania]

STEUER, NOEMI: ,,Aujourd'hui tout le monde se méfie." Vertrauen im Kontext von HIV/AIDS in Mali [Trust in the context of AIDS in Mali]

SCHWÄRZLER, PATRICIA: Sex and the City. Erzählungen alter Männer und Frauen über jugendliche Sexualität und AIDS in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) [Narratives of old men and women about juvenile sexuality and AIDS in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)]

OBRIST, BRIGIT: Soziale Vulnerabilität im städtischen Kontext. Eine medizinethnologische Perspektive [Social vulnerability in the urban context. A medical-anthropological perspective]

HAUSCHILD, THOMAS: Ethnomedizin, medizinische Ethnologie, Medizinanthropologie: Erfolge, Misserfolge und Grenzen [Ethnomedicine, medical ethnology, Medical Anthropology: Successes, failures, and limits]

 

 

 

DÜRR, EVELINE

Transpazifische Kulturbegegnungen: Multiple Perspektiven auf Aneig-nungsprozesse und Migrationserfahrungen

Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 136.2011:27-46

Keywords: transpacific encounters, appropriation and culture, migration, coping strategies

 

##Transpacific cultural encounters: Perspectives on appropriation proces-ses and migration experiences

This article brings together theoretical approaches to the study of appropriation, transculturalism and migration to explore contemporary Latin American migrant experiences and social positioning in Aotearoa New Zealand. I argue that migrants' experiences are mediated by New Zealand migration politics and the country’s official definition as a bicultural nation. Simultaneously, they are also shaped by migrants' individual aspirations and social conditions. Drawing on fieldwork, I trace out the various ways individuals add meaning to their new life circumstances and create successful migration biographies. I argue that individual coping strategies such as appropriation, adaptation or cultural withdrawal are ambiguous and sometimes contested, depending on the viewpoints and social relations of the individuals involved.##

 

 

 

FINK, ROBIN D. & JOHANNES WEYER

Autonome Technik als Herausforderung der soziologischen Handlungs-theorie

Zeitschrift für Soziologie 40.2011:91-111

Keywords: action theory, technology and action theory, Latour, B., autonomous technology, ANT, agent-based modelling

 

##Autonomous Technology as a Challenge to the Sociological Theory of Action

The following paper sketches a sociological model which describes the "coaction" of technology in a way that allows an empirical investigation of the question of non-human agency. Bruno Latour's provocative arguments are taken as a starting point to show that a sociological theory of action, based on Hartmut Esser's model of sociological explanation, is able- to cope with these questions. In order to describe the interaction of human actors and non-human agents, we have, consequently, constructed a sociological model to explain hybrid systems. A car-driving experiment which humans have to cooperate with computer-simulated driver assistant systems has been chosen to prove the potential of the model. The data show that humamn test persons indeed attribute agency to the technical systems. Additionally, they describe the relation of human and machine as symmetrical. Finally, we have discovered that test persons also tend to attribute responsibility for the achievement of certain objectives to the technical system - although the rules of the game distribute responsibility equally between humans and non-humans.##

 

 

 

FLACHOWSKY, SÖREN & HOLGER STOECKER (Eds.)

Vom Amazonas an die Ostfront. Der Expeditionsreisende und Geograph Otto Schulz-Kampfhenkel (1910-1989)

Köln: Böhlau Verlag 2011

394 pp., Euro 44.90; ISBN 3-412-20765-6

Keywords: expeditions, Schulz-Kampfhenkel, O., discovery, German Amazon Jary Expedition, geographical exploration, collectors, museology

 

From the Amazon to the Eastern Front. The expedition traveller and geographer Otto Schulz-Kampfhenkel (1910-1989)

Zoologist and geographer Schulz-Kampfhenkel undertook expeditions to Africa and the Amazon in the 1930s which he quite effectively circulated, in the media and politically, in the Third Reich, and he was made the „South America expert“ of the regime. He declared his aim to conquer the last „white spots“ on earth for Germany, and in secret military operations he went to the frontlines of World War II to do geographical research for the Nazis. In the book, historians, anthropologists, zoologists and media scientists analyze this „bizarre“ person and his career in the areas of scholarship, the media, politics, and military.

FLACHOWSKY, SÖREN & HOLGER STOECKER: Stationen einer Selbstinszenierung. Eine Einführung [Stage-setting oneself. An introduction]

STOECKER, HOLGER: Die Jagd auf letzte „weiße Flecken der Erde“. Stationen eines juvenilen Expeditionsreisenden, 1910-1941 [Hunting for the last „white spots on earth“. A juvenile expeditions traveller, 1910-1941]

OYUELA-CAYCEDO, AUGUSTO, MANUELA FISCHER & RENZO DUIN: Von „Herrenmenschen“ und „Waldmenschen“. Die biografische Inszenierung der „Deutschen Amazonas Jary-Expedition“ von 1935 bis 1937 [Of „members of the master race“ and „forest dwellers“. The biographical stage-setting of the „German Amazon Jary Expedition“ 1935-37]

OHL, MICHAEL: Das Fell in die Sammlung, das Fleisch in den Kochtopf. Otto Schulz-Kampfhenkel als Zoologe und Tierfänger [Schulz-Kampf-henkel as zoologist and hunter]

STAHR, HENRICK: „Zaubergeräte der Zivilisation“. Die multimediale Inszenierung der Amazonas-Jari-Expedition [The multi-medial stage-setting of the Amazon Jari Expedition]

DAVIS, WOLFGANG: „Rätsel der Urwaldhölle“ – Der Film [The movie „Puzzles of the jungle hell“]

ROLKE, MICHA: „Die geladene Maschinenpistole in der rechten, in der linken den Filmapparat“. Schulz-Kampfhenkel im „Sonderkommando Dora“ – Erkundungen in der Wüste Libyens vom Mai 1942 bis Januar 1943 [Schulz-Kampfhenkel in the „Sonderkommando Dora“ – Exploring the Libyan desert from May 1942 to January 1943]

FLACHOWSKY, SÖREN: „Die Forschungsgruppe Schulz-Kampfhenkel steht jetzt für Ostaufgaben zur Verfügung.“ Otto Schulz-Kampfhenkel als Beauftragter für Sonderaufgaben der erdkundlichen Forschung [Schulz-Kampfhenkel as a special agent for geographical research]

PLEWNIA, KARSTE: Das Forschungskommando „Süd“ der Forschungs-staffel z.b.V. in Laibach. Feldforschungen in Karstgebiet Jugoslawiens 1944/45. Eine Fallstudie [The research commando „South“ of the Research Unit z.B.V. at Laibach. Field research in Yugoslavia 1944/45]

FLACHOWSKY, SÖREN, MICHAEL OHL & HOLGER STOECKER: Schwieriger Neubeginn und Rückkehr zur Normalität. Otto Schulz-Kampfhenkel im Nachkriegsdeutschland [Schulz-Kampfhenkel in the post-war era]

 

 

 

FRANK, THERESA

Begegnungen. Eine kritische Hommage an das Reisen

(Ethnologie 43)

Wien: Lit Verlag 2011

220 pp., Euro 19.90; ISBN 3-643-50249-0

Keywords: traveling, otherness, alterity, ars apodemica, appropriation of alterity, cultural encounters

 

Meetings. A critical homage to traveling

Frank discusses the journey – phenomenon and myth, that is, traveling as counter-worlds, the relations and interactions of culture/space and borders or delimitations in this context. This is followed by a „short history“ of experiencing the world – early cosmopolitans, appropriating otherness in Early Modernity, the art of traveling (ars apodemica). Then, the focus is on the traveller: self and alterity, ethnocentrism and exotism, and how he/she appropriates „the world“, and even the „postmodern search for the self“. The third part of the book is devoted to global dimensions of encounter – those being visited, whether it is imperialism, destruction of cultures, commercialization of culture, the re-animation of traditions, and strenghtening of cultural identity: each of these topics exemplified in the work of one (anthropological) author dealing with the respective problem. In a final contemplation Frank deals with chances and limits of approaching the other, „marginal man and culture broker“.

 

 

 

FREY, HARALD

Krebsgeschwür Konzern. Mit Beiträgen von Hans Peter Aubauer et al.

Frankfurt/M.: Lang Verlag 2011

368 pp., Euro 29.90; ISBN 3-631-61319-1

Keywords: corporations, evolutionary epistemology, growth of corporations, malignancy and corporations

 

The cancer of corporations. With contributions by Hans Peter Aubauer et al.

##The main thesis of this work should not only identify an analytical isomorphism between the growth of corporations and cancer (the way it metastasizes in living organisms), but also prove this empirically. Experience with evolutionary epistemology serves as a basis, which shows that substantial regularities already exist in subjacent layers of evolution... Implementing the Dynamic Energy Budget Theory (DEB) of Kooijman (2000), van Leeuwen et al. (2003) developed a tumor model which focuses especially on the tumor-host interaction. It shows that the tumor promotes this growth – analogous to corporations – by reducing growth- and mainenance costs (in comparison to the host). These externalization processes are mainly responsible for the growth of corporate structures... It is demonstrated that there exists not only a qualitative-analytic but also an empirically provable analogy between the growth of corporations and malignant tumors.##

 

 

 

GEIMER, ALEXANDER

Das Konzept der Aneignung in der qualitativen Rezeptionsforschung. Eine wissenssoziologische Präzisierung im Anschluss an die und in Abgrenzung von den Cultural Studies

Zeitschrift für Soziologie 40.2011:191-207

Keywords: qualitative media studies, Cultural Studies, Sociology of Knowledge, film, appropriation, reception studies; audience studies

 

##The concept of Appropriation in Qualitative Reception Studies. A Specification informed by the Sociology of Knowledge with Respect to Cultural Studies Approaches

This paper discusses the currently very popular concept of appropriation in (especially German) media audience studies, which is being developed by cultural studies and focuses on the creativity and self-will of spectators. Despite the fact that cultural studies researchers have, in this way, accomplished pioneering work in terms of qualitative reception studies, there have been tendencies to romanticize and idealize audience activity. In contrast to such (post-structuralistic and interactionistic) positions and in continuation of approaches in cultural studies which conceptualize appropriation as a specific practice of reception this article proposes a specification inspired by the sociology of knowledge and by the author's empirical findings. This leads to a differentiation of productive vs. reproductive appropriation that is able to further illuminate Stuart Hall's reading-triad: dominant; negotiated; oppositional.##

 

 

 

GEISENHAINER, KATJA

Anthropologie und Ethnologie in Leipzig Ende der 1920er Jahre. Die erste Tagung der Gesellschaft für Völkerkunde und die Expeditionen des Staatlich-Sächsischen Forschungsinstituts für Völkerkunde

Paideuma 57.2011:53-80

Keywords: anthropology at Leipzig, ethnology in Germany, Krause, F., Association of Ethnology, German Anthropological Association, physical anthropology

 

Anthropology and ethnology at Leipzig in the late 1920s. The first meeting of the Association of Ethnology and expeditions of the Saxon Research Institute

##The article describes the relationship between physical anthropology and ethnology in Germany in the years prior to 1933, with a particular focus on Leipzig. It was here that the first conference of the Association of Ethnology in 1929, organized by Fritz Krause, took place. Among the topics discussed at the conference was the role of physical anthropology in relation to anthropological studies. Leipzig was also the home of the Saxon Research Institute, which provided funds for several ethnological expeditions. Physical anthropology - which at that time often meant ‚racial science’ -  was included in field studies as well as in writing. This will be explored further by discussing the expeditions of Egon Freiherr von Eickstedt, Paul Germann, Joachim Hellmut Wilhelm, Bernhard Struck and Erich Bauer. To investigate the relevance of relations between physical anthropology and ethnology in the past is of historical interest, but it is also important for current discussions about the cooperation between these two disciplines.##

 

 

 

GREVE, JENS & ANNETTE SCHNABEL (Eds.)

Emergenz. Zur Analyse und Erklärung komplexer Strukturen

(Suhrkamp Taschenbuch Wissenschaft 1917)

Berlin: Suhrkamp Verlag 2011

415 pp., Euro 16,-; ISBN 3-518-29517-5

Keywords: emergence, reduction of reality, reality and reduction, holism, ontology, complex structures

 

Emergence. Analyzing and explaining complex structures

The editors, sociologists, frame the notion of emergence as the „appearance of traits of a structure whose elements do not show those traits“. As an example, they name the V shape of a flock of flying birds, based on neuronal processes which do not possess consciousness, and they refer to the „social world“, e.g. groups or societies. Frequently, according to the editors, there is the claim that emergent traits of complex structures cannot be traced back („reduced“) to traits of their elements which would necessitate other explanations. This would contradict the claim for a near-complete explanation of reality, however. Papers in this volume are by philosophers, sociologists, neuro-scientists, biologists, and physicists.

 

 

 

GRUBER, JUTTA

Angst und Faszination. Eine Neubewertung des Animalischen Magnetismus Franz Anton Mesmers

(Medizinkulturen im Vergleich 20)

Berlin: Lit Verlag 2011

87 pp., Euro 10.90; ISBN 3-8258-5669-4

Keywords: medical anthropology, Mesmer, F.A., mesmerism, „life energy“, Kuhn. T.S., paradigmatic change

 

Fear and fascination. A new assessment of Franz Anton Mesmer’s animal magnetism

This is a brief study is another attempt to understand and categorize Mesmer, including a medical-anthropological perspective. Gruber does so by first referring to, and utilizing Thomas Kuhn’s frame of paradigmatic change – by understanding Mesmer as one such case, which becomes clear from his biography. She then describes useful contexts, such as intellectual currents of his time, political and ecclesiastical history, and the history of science. Mesmer’s life is another context included, then in detail, theories and concepts of scientific controversy, and a last chapter deals with effects of Mesmer’s method of animal magnetism – in relation to scholarly debate, modern research of „life energy“, psychology, music, literature, and philosophy.

 

 

 

HAHN, HANS PETER

Antinomien kultureller Aneignung: Einführung

Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 136.2011:11-26

Keywords: cultural appropriation, appropriation of culture, hybridization, creolization, domestication, globalization

 

##Antinomies of cultural appropriation - Introduction

In the context of globalization, cultural anthropology gained a new momentum by highlighting the self-conscious persistence of cultural differences. Against the background of an ever increasing intensity of societal and economic entanglements, the vital claim of cultural differences must be a reflexive process associated with the idea that one's own culture is creative and adaptive to innovations. Anthropologists have defined a set of tools in order to describe these processes of cultural changes. These tools have the names of hybridization, creolization and domestication, but, in particular also of cultural appropriation. Historically cultural appropriation was mainly relevant in contexts of unequal power relations. Appropriation thereby became a strategy of the powerless, who used appropriation in order to undermine the structures defined by the powerful. Cultural appropriation can also be practised through mimesis, and thereby negates the authority of powerful actors. Cultural appropriation requires moments of negotiations and does not aim at definitive results, but merely at the transgression of boundaries. Well defined fields of cultural appropriation within anthropology are media studies and consumption. Empirical approaches to a more detailed documentation of appropriation can be the following: (1) Naming, (2) Contextualization, (3) Incorporation and (4) material transformation.##

 

 

 

HANSEN, KLAUS P.

Kultur und Kulturwissenschaft. 4. Auflage

Tübingen: A. Francke Verlag 2011

304 pp., Euro 18.90; ISBN 3-8252-3549-9

Keywords: cultural studies, culture

 

Culture and cultural science. 4th edition

The book is intended to be a basic, clear-cut introduction. The 4th edition positions the collective in the center since, according to the author, it can explain dynamics, difference, and change. The first chapter ‚normalizes’: thought, feeling, action, and deals with institutions and collectivization. The second chapter is about the individual and the collective (segmentation, ethnic collectives, pancollective formations, interculturality etc.). Chapter V discusses collective perception, chapter VI deals with competing notions of culture (material, functionalist, cultural critique, semiotic, and transculturality).

 

 

 

HARMS, VOLKER

Bedenken gegen die ,,Frankfurter Erklärung" zur Ethik in der Ethnologie

Paideuma 57.2011:267-285

Keywords: ethics of anthropology, German ethics declaration, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Völkerkunde, individualism vs. collectivism, relativism

 

Doubts considering the „Frankfurt Declaration“ on ethics in anthropology

##The "Frankfurter Declaration" on ethics in cultural anthropology has been voted for by an 'overwhelming majority' at a meeting of the members of the "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Völkerkunde (DGV)", which took place in October 2009 in Frankfurt am Main. The author, who has a few criticisms of the "Declaration", belonged to the minority of those present at the meeting who voted against it. The reasons for his opposition, which will be explained in detail in the article, are the following: (1) On the one hand the authors of the "Declaration" want to make it non-binding by stressing that the planning and carrying out of anthropological research are principally matters for individual responsibility. (2) On the other hand, all those members who voted for the "Declaration" are obliged to profess that individual dignity and responsibility take priority over collective interests. This expressly assumes an image of humanity which is very limited looked at cross-culturally because the individual is privileged as the main criterion of ethically motivated decisions. No reason is given for this Eurocentric attitude in a declaration by cultural anthropologists. (l) To propose basic standards for ethically acceptable behaviour in doing ethnographic fieldwork and in publishing the information obtained in a declaration on ethics in cultural anthropology is, of course, welcome. But the assertion that these standards will unavoidably lead into contradictions and the impossibility of resolving this dilemma makes no sense. It can also be questioned whether these basic standards will prove compatible with the theory of cultural relativism.##

 

 

 

HEIDEMANN, FRANK

Ethnologie. Eine Einführung

Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht 2011

285 pp., Euro 22.90; ISBN 3-8252-3467-6

Keywords: anthropology textbook, textbook anthropology

 

Anthropology. An introduction

This introduction to socio-cultural anthropology with a bent for cultural studies ranges from early evolutionism to cyber anthropology and is designed as a basic textbook suitable for student learning also, including sections with questions and answers. The book thus introduces major branches or subject areas of anthropology, such as globalization, transnationalism, anthropologies of the body and medicine, the senses and emotions, media, the visual. Therefore, Heidemann starts with two fundamental concepts: culture, and methods (field work and participant observation). The first hundred years cover evolutionism, diffusionism, cultural relativism, the culture and personality school, functionalism, structural functionalism, structuralism, and cognitive studies. The more recent part covers the crisis of representation, the interpretive turn, postmodernism, and postcolonial studies. Then, systematic areas are introduced: kinship, economic anthropology, religious studies, political anthropology. The last chapter deals with ethnicity and migration, transnationalism, urban anthropology, medicine and related subjects, and media and cyber anthropology.

 

HEINTZ, BETTINA & TOBIAS WERRON

Wie ist Globalisierung möglich? Zur Entstehung globaler Vergleichs-horizonte am Beispiel von Wissenschaft und Sport

Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 63.2011:359-394

Keywords: sports, globalization, competitive sports

 

##What makes globalization possible? Explaining the emergence of global horizons of comparison in science and sports

The article conceives of globalization as a highly improbable phenomenon. In contrast to the mainstream of the globalization literature, we ask under which conditions the globalization of societal fields can potentially become an empirical reality. We proceed in three steps: The second part presents an explanatory model that identifies the conditions under which global horizons of comparison may emerge. Our model is predicated on the assumption that the globalization of societal fields is enabled not only by relational linkages (“ties”) but by public comparative discourses (“cultural linkages”) too. In the third part, we apply this model on the development of modern science and competitive sports, proving the explanatory power of our model and showing that in both cases global horizons of comparison first consolidated in the late 19th century. The final part concludes with reflections on commonalities and differences between the two cases, on the applicability of the model to other social fields (e.g, economy) and on its implications for the analysis of globalization processes.##

 

 

 

HELLMANN, KAI-UWE

Fetische des Konsums. Studien zur Soziologie der Marke

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2011

298 pp, Euro 29.99; ISBN 3-531-16933-0

Keywords: brands, consumerism, fetishism of brands, magic of brands

 

Fetishes of consumerism. Studies on the sociology of brands

Citing Karl Marx, the author starts by referring to the insight that products, as soon as they are introduced to the market, undergo change. The product becomes a fetish, full of metaphysical sophistication and theological peculiarities. Seen from this perspective, present-day consumer society attributes fetish characteristics to brands. Whether it is Coca Cola or the iPhone – certain brands emanate strong fascination, they seem to have a special aura, drawing people as soon they find them attractive. So the author argues that brands have become fetishes of consumerism. The chapters of the book deal with functions and effects brands have for consumers from a sociological perspective: the function of marketing to mobilize customers, the advertisement value of brands, vaulues of brands, the magic of brands, varieties of consumers, and distinction and consumerism. Finally, a case of protest – an anti-Christmas movement is discussed.

 

 

 

HENTGES, GUDRUN & BETTINA LÖSCH (Eds.)

Die Vermessung der sozialen Welt. Neoliberalismus – extreme Rechte – Migration im Fokus der Debatte

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2011

336 pp., Euro 26.99; ISBN 3-531-16829-6

Keywords: neoliberalism, rightist movements, migration, globalization, rightist ideology, political education

 

Measuring the social world. Neoliberalism, the extreme Right, migration in the focus of debate

Starting point of the 21 contributions in this volume by various specialists as well as politicians are processes of (neoliberal) globalization penetrating and influencing all areas of life. This is done in the case of the crisis of the European Union, the theory of democracy and the state, the globalization of war, but also discussing perspectives of (leftist) political movements, and questions resulting from these inquiries for political education. This also touches the problem of poverty in an affluent society – espially the aspect of poverty of children with and without migratory background. Other topics are migration and integration, ethnization of social conflicts, and the increase of extreme rightist ideologies. The authors also define necessities for preventing those rightist ideologies. In doing so, the editors understand this volume as a „measurement, or survey of the social world“.

 

 

 

HERBRIK, REGINE

Die kommunikative Konstruktion imaginärer Welten

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2011

224 pp., Euro 36.99; ISBN 3-531-17585-0

Keywords: imaginary worlds, communication, constructing the imaginary

 

The communicative construction of imaginary worlds

This study is generated in five steps: explaining and contextualizing the topic – and the utilization of the pen-and-paper role play in answering questions of the study. Then, notions and concepts are presented. Herbrik portrays positions of the sociology of knowledge regarding „communication“, as well as the imaginary and imagination in the cultural and social sciences, in anthropology, also using game theory in this context. The next chapter presents data generation and interpretation, followed by describing specific communicative patterns of action pertaining to dealing with the imaginary. The last chapter discusses the results and their implications and scope.

 

 

 

JÄCKLE, SEBASTIAN & GEORG WENZELBURGER

Religion und Religiosität als Ursache von Homonegativität. Eine Mehr-ebenenanalyse von 79 Staaten

Berliner Journal für Soziologie 21.2011:231-263

Keywords: homonegativity, homosexuality, homophobia

 

##Religion and religiousness as determinants of homonegativity. A multi-level analysis of 79 countries

Although the attitudes towards homosexuality have become more liberal especially in industrializcd Western countries, there is still a huge variance in terms of the levels of homo-negativity worldwide. This article secks to explain this variance by means of a multi-level-analysis of 79 countries. The data stem from the last two waves of the World Values Survey. On the basis of this data, the article focuses on the power of the religious denomination of a person and her religiousness in order to explain her attitude towards homosexuality; for both variables a strong influence can be detected. In addition, the article indicates that, on the individual level, socio-demographic variables e.g. age, gender, education, marital status or profession are highly interconnected with the intensity of homonegativity. On the country-level, however, the main explanatory factors are both the economic development and the communist heritage. The article further highlights significant conditional relationships by introducing cross-level interactions and interaction terms on the individual level. The final model explains about 60% of the variance on the aggregate level and 30% on the individual level.##

 

 

 

JÜTTEMANN, GERD

Historische Psychologie und die Entwicklung der Menschheit. Die Perspektive einer Fundamentaltheorie

Erwägen Wissen Ethik 22.2011:3-16

Keywords: development, psychology and human development, historical psychology, culture and human development

 

Historical psychology and the development of mankind. The perspective of a fundamental theory

##The task of a universal history is to describe the development of mankind. The questions for an historical psychology are (1) What are the specifically psychological aspects of the developmental process? And (2) How does culture influence the development of persons? The objectives oft he present work are to show why it is not only interesting but essential to overcome the widespread neglect of this area of inquiry, and to advance a basic theory oft he psychology of the development of mankind.##

 

 

 

KIESENDAHL, JANA

Status und Kommunikation. Ein Vergleich von Sprechhandlungen in universitären E-mails und Sprechstundengesprächen

(Philologische Studien und Quellen 227)

Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag 2011

393 pp., Euro 59.80; ISBN 3-503-12247-9

Keywords: speech acts, academia and speech acts, status and communication, communication, hierarchy, perpetuation of hierarchy, students and teachers, teachers’ status

 

Status and communication. Comparing speech acts in university e-mails and counseling sessions/consultations

The author asks whether in the style of institutional, hierarchically marked e-mails status difference is evident o not – since private e-mail communication tends to be close to spoken language. Based on speech act analysis an inventory of types of speech acts for teachers and students has been generated focusing on communication regarding exams. This allows for reconstruction of their performance, and to interpret it according to parameters of institution, roles, and situations. The study shows that the medium offers various spaces for insinuating and pointing to role and status, that hierarchies are NOT overcome, and that specifically students affirm their own and their teachers’ status continuously.

KNORR, ALEXANDER

Cyber-Anthropology

Wuppertal: Edition Trickster im Peter Hammer Verlag 2011

189pp., Euro 19.90; ISBN 3-7795-0359-0

Keywords: cyber-anthropology, cyber punk, cybernetics, second life, game modding, culture definition, modding

 

Cyber-anthropology

Knorr assesses cyber-anthropology from the notion of culture as a starting point – using his „pragmatic“ framing of culture to include in it all human thought and artifact, beyond purely biological processes and reproduction and, i.e., innovation (14). And this, consequently, includes all forms of communities, all cultures and countries, not just „oral“ ones – and hence, cyber products and forms of community. Having specified meaning in this way, Knorr considers for instance cyber punk as „one, or the major source of fictional material“ for understanding contemporary life worlds, contemporary culture (29). In continuing his „encyclopaedic“ and essayistic portrait of cyber-anthropology Knorr deals with cybernetics, cyberpunk, spaces of game/play, hardware aspects, completed by a mediography. Knorr reports about his long ethnographic fieldwork among the „Max Payne“ game online scene (MPHQ), and he describes and interprets it anthropologically. Thus, users of this complex interact online but import information and contents of their various „real“ lifeworlds, e.g., nation states, and Knorr makes conclusions based on his participation and observation of these processes. In the chapter on hardware Knorr discusses modding practices comparatively (Sudan, Japan...).

 

 

 

KOENIG, MATTHIAS 

Jenseits des Säkularisierungsparadigmas? Eine Auseinandersetzung mit Charles Taylor

Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 63.2011:649-673

Keywords: Taylor, C., secularization, religion and secularization, multiple modernities, modernities

 

##Beyond the paradigm of secularization?—A discussion with Charles Taylor

Charles Taylor’s book A Secular Age is a widely appraised alternative to the classical paradigm of secularization theory. This article situates this alternative theory within the debate of sociology of religion on secularization and its sub-components. Three requirements are formulated that alternative conceptions would have to met. First, they need to understand why „secularity“ became such a prominent category of self interpretation in modern societies. Second, they have to be able to integrate years of cumulative sociological research on sub-processes of secula-rization with findings on genuinely modern forms of religious vitality emphasized by the classical paradigm’s critics. And in light of on-going debates over multiple modernities, they would need to describe and explain the varieties of differentiation in societal and cultural comparison. In critical discussion of Charles Taylor’s contribution, the limits of culturalist theories of modern secularity as well as some tasks for historical-sociological research on religion in modernity are identified.##

 

 

 

KOENSLER, ALEXANDER

Hoffnung oder Frieden? Spielräume der Mobilisierung transnationaler Friedensnetzwerke seit dem letzten Gaza-Krieg

Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 136.2011:169-188

Keywords: peace networks, activism networks, globalization, NGOs, political friction, state, signs

 

##Hope or peace? Spaces of the mobilization of transnational peace networks since the last Gaza war

After the last Gaza war in 2009, an unusual meeting of Israeli ex-soldiers initiated a heated debate in the public domain. The soldiers confessed some uncomfortable insights about apparently pointless violence, but an internal investigation could not prove their allegations. At first glance, it seemed the military contradicted itself. This paper aims to show that such confusing events are not an isolated case, but the result of a strategy of mobilization of global acting activism networks which include NGOs, international donors and individual personalities. Based on fieldwork with Israeli activists and critically inspired by debates on ethnography and globalization, I follow complex configurations of actors that indicate zones of political friction. Activists operate in key areas of state sovereignty, rather than to stand opposed to it. There are two implications of the emerging power of these nerworks: on the one hand, the conflict on the ground seems to be transformed into a meta-conflict consisting only of signs and counter-sign; on the other it is here emblematic how classical political units, such as the state conceptualized as a unitary actor, seems at first glance to be dissolved, but also reproduced in an iconic way.##

KRAMER, FRITZ W.

Als fremd erfahren werden. Eine Lektüre der Reisebeschreibungen von Dorugu und Ham Mukasa

Paideuma 57.2011:37-52

Keywords: travelogues, alterity, foreigners, transcultural descriptions, Malinowski, B., Dorugu, Ham Mukasa

 

Being experienced as foreign. Reading travelogues of Dorugu and Ham Mukasa

##Travelogues about other cultures, including accounts of Europe in different centuries, have been told or written about in many societies throughout the world. Recently anthropologists and historians have become aware of these. In contrast to the well-established genre of Lettres persanes they offer a genuine perspective for an interpretation of Europe from the outside. Moreover, travelogues about Europe have heuristic value in understanding a specific hermeneutic situation, namely reaclings of foreign travelogues and ethnographies about one's own or one's ancestral culture in general, also being an aspect of crucial importance for the study of globalisation in the longue durée. I take two African travelogues as examples. Ham Mukasa, a literate, English-speaking citizen of Buganda who visitecl England in 1902 to witness the coronation ceremony of Edward VII, experienced Europe as a spectacle his hosts had staged to impress, among others, guests from the colonies. But Mukasa also expected something miraculous from the outset, using phrases and images from the New Testament which he thought fitted the occasion. The second example, a story told by Dorugu, an illiterate Hausa boy brought to Germany and England by Heinrich Barth in 1856, shows us Europe from below from the perspective of a servant. Both reports are correct as far as the facts are concerned, but the sense expressed is not the sense Europeans had or have of themselves, or of things European. It might be tempting to attribute the impression these reports make on Europeans – the facts are correct, while the sense is missed - to the naivety of these African travellers. Could such a finding be a quality of all transcultural descriptions? At least, this is suggested by three Trobriand readings of Malinowski's professional ethnography.##

 

 

 

 

 

 

KRAUSS, SEBASTIAN W.D.

Neuzeitliche Theodizee und funktionale Differenzierung. Eine historisch-semantische Analyse zur Wissenssoziologie der modernen Gesellschaft

Berliner Journal für Soziologie 21.2011:587-603

Keywords: theodicy, Weber, M., religion, sociology of religion

 

##Modern theodicy and functional differentiation - An analysis of histori-cal semantics on the sociology of knowledge of modern society

The problem of theodicy is a specific phenomenon of the modern age. Though when Max Weber introduced the term in a much broader sense into sociology and based his sociology of religion on it, the actual empi-rical phenomenon got concealed, considering the historical importance of theodicy for the emergence of modern society, a sociological analysis is overdue. By means of an analysis of historical semantics the paper shows the connection of theodicy with the change of society's primary form of differentiation to functional differentiation.##

 

 

 

KREBS, UWE

Biologische Wurzeln und ethnologische Varianz. Grundlagen einer Anthropologie der Erziehung

Erwägen Wissen Ethik 22.2011:155-168

Keywords: education, biological anthropology, ethnology, metastudy education, comparison and biology

 

Biological roots and ethnological variety. Foundations of an anthropology of education

##The contribution deals with rearing an education in a broader perspective, which includes data of biological anthropology and ethnology. The aim is to contribute to an outline of rearing and education. After explaining the concept „macro analysis“, after reflecting object and method in educational science, relevant data from biological anthropology and ethnology were presented. Emphasis was given to material derived from about 100 ethnological monographs. The data displayed a great many of conformity in the general educational processes of tribal cultures in spite of different subsistence techniques, races, continents and climates. These conformities contrast to our rearing and education and raise anthropo-logical questions. Two subjects are discussed more in detail: the infancy and the youth.##

 

KUBICKI, KAROL & SIEGWARD LÖNNENDONKER  (Eds.)

Die Kultur- und Ethno-Wissenschaften an der Freien Universität Berlin

(Beiträge zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte der Freien Universität Berlin 4)

Göttingen: V&R unipress 2011

207 pp., Euro 45,-; ISBN 3-89971-856-0

Keywords: anthropology at Berlin, ethnology at Berlin

 

The cultural and ethnological sciences at the Free University of Berlin

Of the 11 papers in this volume the following is devoted to social/cultural anthropology at this university, the „Institut für Ethnologie):

RENNER, EGON: Das Institut für Ethnologie der Freien Universität Berlin: Entwicklungen und Leistungen von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart [The Institute of Ethnologie at the Free University of Berlin: Developments and achievements from the beginnings to the present]

 

 

 

KUMMELS, INGRID

Race on Stage: Inszenierungen von Differenz in Musik und Tanz in Paris, Havanna und New York zwischen den beiden Weltkriegen

Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 136.2011:239-264

Keywords: music and dance, dance and music, transnationalism, performance

 

##Race on Stage: Performing Difference in Music and Dance in Paris, Havana and New York between the World Wars

This article analyzes the contributions of internationally mobile artists to cabaret performances referring to racial stereotypes between the World Wars. Musicians, singers and dancers classified in Cuba as mulatos or negros and female artists who were not conceded an equal access to the music business during the 1920s and 1930s seized new opportunities in the context of New York's Harlem Renaissance and Paris' Tumulte Noir. They were motivated to work in these cities not only for economical reasons, but also because of the potentiality they ascribed to cabaret music and dance as means for overcoming racism. I explore to what extent they were able to introduce versions of "black culture" that differed from the exoticizing representations privileged by "white" impresarios. The performances are analyzed as sites in which heterogeneous actors inscribecl imaginaries of race. Travelling beween the diverging racial regimes of the three cities (which all constructed a similar bipolar racial order), the artists institituted more realistic perspectives on music and dance on the transnational stages based on their local knowledge. Ultimately these Cuban artists contributed to a diversification of what was considered to be "black culture" in Havana, Paris and New York.##

 

 

 

KUTALEK, RUTH

Ethnoentomology: A Neglected theme in Ethnopharmacology?

Curare 34.2011:128-136

Keywords: medicinal insects, entomotherapy, history, cultural entomology, pharmacology, medical anthropology

 

##In many pharmacopoeias and in comparison to the use of medicinal plants, insects - or what is folk-classified as insects - undoubtedly are a neglected issue. Moreover, with few exceptions, there are also scarce ethnographic data on the therapeutic value of insects within indigenous healing systems. Most research on this topic has been carried out on Asian medical systems, where ancient and modern written sources prove that the use of insects and other arthropods as prophylactics, medicine and food is a fairly widespread practice. More recently, especially in Latin America and Africa there have also been several projects concerning the folk-use of insects. In the last two decades, medicinal insects have attracted more and more attention as bioscience has been discovering its highly specific chemical substances as defensive mechanisms or against microbial infestation for its possible pharmaceutical application. In this article I establish a relationship between the history of ethnoentomology and popular medical use of insects, and how this knowledge has significantly contributed to modern pharmacological research.##

 

 

 

LABATE, BEATRIZ CAIUBY & HENRIK JUNGABERLE (Eds.)

The internationalization of Ayahuasca

(Performanzen 16)

Wien: Lit Verlag 2011

446 pp., Euro 44.90; ISBN 3-643-90148-4

Keywords: Ayahuasca, globalization, users of ayahuasca, discourses on ayahuasca, healers

 

The book and its 27 papers are based on the conference „The globalization of the uses of Ayahuasca: An Amazonian psychoactive and its users“ at the Institute of Medical Psychology, Heidelberg University, Germany, in May 2008.

##The conference brought together some of the world’s most important experts from different disciplines such as medicine, psychology, ethnobotany, pharmacology, law, religious science, and anthropology involved in research on ayahuasca,, and promoted a mutual dialogue with diverse ayahuasca users including western ayahuasca adepts, Amazonian healers, religious leaders and activists. We gathered contributions from the majority of participants, as well as some additional collaborators... The book seeks to describe and analyze the diverse forms of ayahuasca use throughout the world from a multidisciplinary perspective. It was our specific goal not reduce the varieties of practices, experiences and scientific perspectives into a single model or to provide a simplified risk assessment. Instead the book makes available a general overview of the topic, ranging across multiple cultural, health and legal aspects. Like the expansion of ayahuasca itself, the addition includes voices from the north and south, from urban and rural areas, from scientific and spiritual perspectives: in a word, a range of discourses from across a continuum of hybrid possibilities.##

 

 

 

LAHIRE, BERNARD

Das Individuum und die Vermischung der Genres. Kulturelle Dissonanzen und Selbst-Distinktion

Berliner Journal für Soziologie 21.2011:39-68

Keywords: self-distinction, distinction, individual cultural profiles, homogeneity, heterogeneous cultural profiles, cultural profiles

 

##The individual and the mixing of genres - Cultural dissonances and self-distinction

By considering cultural practices and preferences in terms of intra-individual behavioral variation it is possible to construct a model of the social world which does not neglect individual singularities and avoids the cultural caricature of social groups. Thus, it becomes clear that the boundary between "cultural legitimacy" and "cultural illegitimacy" does not only separate different social classes, but divides up the cultural practices and preferences of individuals themselves across all classes. Without challenging the existence of social inequalities in terms of the most legitimate forms of culture, such a scientific point of view allows to establish the marked statistical frequency of individual cultural profiles composed of heterogeneous or dissonant elements. The article considers the socio-historical conditions that produce heterogeneous cultural profiles and shows that these frequent cultural dissonances allow to reinterpret the social functions of culture and to highlight the importance of the study of intra-individual behavioral variations within the framework of a sociology of dispositional and contextual plurality.##

 

 

 

LEMKE, CLAUDIA

Ethnographie nach der „Krise der Repräsentation“. Versuche in Anleh-nung an Paul Rabinow und Bruno Latour. Skizzen einer pädagogischen Anthropologie des Zeitgenössischen

Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag 2011

296 pp., Euro 32.80; ISBN 3-8376-1727-6

Keywords: representation, crisis of representation, ethnography and representation, Writing Culture, Rabinow, P., Latour, B.

 

Ethnography after the „crisis of representation“. Essays related to Paul Rabinow und Bruno Latour

Lemke acknowledges strong traces of the „crisis of representation“ in social research. She takes up these traces in reflecting on research on an art-pedagogical project, „sense&cyber“for the use of new media in four art schools in Lower Saxony, Germany. Using Rabinow’s and Latour’s notions her study moves from „small points of observation“ (oligoptics) of „hypermedial ethnography“ to rough contours of a „pedagogical anthro-pology of the contemporary“. She considers this to be an innovative approach for an ethnographic philosophy in the area of education studies.

 

 

 

LUDES, PETER (Ed.)

Algorithms of power. Key invisibles

(The world language of key visuals 3)

Münster: Lit Verlag 2011

244 pp., Euro 24.90; ISBN 3-643-11163-0

Keywords: amok and war, violence, power and news, news and truth, computer and social sciences, key invisibles, automatic classification, transnational publics, classification of persons

 

##This volume consists mainly of papers originally presented at an international conference "Algorithms of Power - Key Invisibles" at Jacobs University Bremen in January 2010, sponsored by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG); the TZI Center for Computing Technologies, University of Bremen; and the School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen. All papers were improved in the light of the discussions and supplemented by further international contributions. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the DFG for the publication of this volume, as part of our research project "Automatic Detection and classification of persons as Key Visual Candidates."##

LUDES, PETER: Towards Bridging The Semantic Gap Between Key Visual Candidates and Algorithms of Power

MÜLLER, JAN & MARTIN STOMMEL: Heads of State and Common People: Perspectives from the Computer and Social Sciences

ILIES, IULIAN & ARNE JACOBS: Automatic Image Annotation Through Concept Propagation

WARNKE, MARTIN: Image Search

EWERTH, RALPH & BERND FREISLEBEN: Automatic Classification of State Heads and Common People?

MÜLLER, MARION G. & JOHN BATEMAN: Amok and war: Visible violence – invisible victims

BOCCIA, LEONARDO: Key audibles

LUDES, PETER: Multi-sensory experiences

PHILLIPS, PETER & MICKEY HUFF: Truth emergency: Managed news inside the U.S./NATO military-industrial media empire

PÖTTKER, HORST: Another spiral of silence: Lack of publicness is its own generator

SCHULZKI-HADDOUTI, CHRISTIANE: News enlightenment in Ger-many

NIELAND, JÖRG-UWE & MATTHIAS BIANCHI: ‚Junk food news’ and ‚news abuse – More challenges for news enlightenment

IMHOF, KURT: Transnational publics – transnational news enlighten-ment?

 

 

 

LYDALL, JEAN & IVO STRECKER

Merging horizons

Paideuma 57.2011:7-35

Keywords: equality, informants, anthropologists and equality

##‚Merging horizons' is an epistemological stance adopted by anthro-pologists who aim to share an ethos of equality with the people they study. In the process, both parties – observer and observed – explore how far their views of the world coincide and how far they differ. We have used this concept of merging horizons not only to characterise our various activities as students, researchers and teachers of anthropology, but also to throw light on our personal relationship. What does it mean to do fieldwork as a couple? What were our different backgrounds, and how did we meet, bond, separate, and bond again? How did our interests develop? How far did they coincide and how did they differ? The story is told with an eye on the figurative power of events, as well as on the many surprises and reversals that have occurred in the drama of our lives.##

 

 

 

MACKERT, JÜRGEN

Im Auftrag des Staates. Die geheime Gesellschaft der Folterer

Berliner Journal für Soziologie 21.2011:431-459

Keywords: torture, state and torture, Simmel, G., secret society

 

##In the name of the state. The secret society of the torturers

Torture is an extreme act of collective violence that is secretly executed in the name of a state. In order to explain the reasons why people torture others, individualist approaches concentrate on individuals' motives or interests. Contrary to that, the article argues that torture should be understood as a social relation. Thus, it takes the social relations of the group of torturers as a starting point. Firstly, following Georg Simmel's analysis of the secret society the paper argues that the group of torturers can adequately be conceptualized as a secret society; secondly, against this background the article reconstructs the conditions which structure torturers' agency; finally, this article offers an outline of the processes and dynamics that allows for explaining the phenomenon of torture. The thesis of the article argues that a relational sociology helps better explain and understand the social phenomenon of torture.##

 

 

 

MENDE, JANNE

Kultur, Volk und Rasse. Die deutsche Ethnologie im Nationalsozialismus und ihre Aufarbeitung

Anthropos 106-2011:529-545

Keywords: German anthropology, Nazism and anthropology, Frobenius, L., Mühl-mann, W.E.,  Schmidt, W. 

 

Culture, Volk, and race. German anthropology during National Socialism and its reappraisal

##German anthropology has started to deal with ist own role during National Socialism just since the eighties. Although important research has been conducted since then, significant issues remain to be discussed. Therefore, the following article aims at two subjects in order to arouse further debate. On the one hand, the theoretic and practical conjunctions between anthropology and National Socialism are being analysed. On the other hand, the postwar anthropological examination of the own past itself shows specific reductions and rationalisations which are to be explored. They indicate that form and content of dealing with the National Socialist past still shape today's anthropology.##

 

 

 

MEY, GÜNTER & KATJA MRUCK (Eds.)

Grounded theory reader. 2., aktualisierte und erweiterte Auflage

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2011

468 pp., Euro 36.99; ISBN 3-531-17103-6

Keywords: Grounded Theory, methodology of Grounded Theory, situational analysis, subjectivity, self-reflexivity, Glaser, B., Strauss, A., abduction, coding, sampling

 

Grounded theory reader. 2nd updated and enlarged edition

This book presents an overview of the development and current situation of Grounded Theory methodology. The „founders“ present their positions and research strategies, in papers and interviews, and prominent „practitioners“ of the method discuss challenges of Grounded Theory – epistemological preconditions and research practice.

MEY, GÜNTER & KATJA MRUCK: Grounded-Theory-Methodologie: Entwicklung, Stand, Perspektiven [Grounded Theory – Development, current state, perspectives]

GLASER, BARNEY G. & MASSIMILIANO TAROZZI: Vierzig Jahre nach ,,The Discovery": Grounded Theory weltweit [40 years after the „discovery“ of Grounded Theory]

STRAUSS, ANSELM L. with HEINER LEGEWIE & BARBARA SCHERVIER-LEGEWIE: ,,Forschung ist harte Arbeit, es ist immer ein Stück Leiden damit verbunden. Deshalb muss es auf der anderen Seite Spaß machen." [Research is hard work, including suffering, so it should be fun on the other hand]

CORBIN, JULIET M. im Gespräch mit CESAR A. CISNEROS PUEBLA: ,,Lernen konzeptuell zu denken" [Interview: To learn thinking conceptually]

CHARMAZ, KATHY C. im Gespräch mit  ANTHONY J. PUDDE-PHATT: Grounded Theory konstruieren [Interview: Constructing Grounded Theory]

CLARKE, ADELE E. im Gespräch mit REINER KELLER: ,,Für mich ist die Darstellung der Komplexität der entscheidende Punkt." Zur Begrün-dung der Situationsanalyse [Interview: On the foundations of situational analysis]

GLASER, BARNEY G. unter Mitarbeit von JUDITH A. HOLTON: Der Umbau der Grounded-Theory-Methodologie [Rebuilding Grounded Theory]

CORBIN, JULIET M.: Eine analytische Reise unternehmen [Undertaking an analytical journey]

CHARMAZ, KATHY C.: Den Standpunkt verändern: Methoden der konstruktivistischen Grounded Theory [Changing one’s perspective]

CLARKE, ADELE E.: Von der Grounded-Theory-Methodologie zur Situationsanalyse [From Grounded-Theory methodology to situational analysis]

KELLE, UDO: ,,Emergence" oder ,,Forcing"? Einige methodologische Überlegungen zu einem zentralen Problem der Grounded Theory [,,Emergence" or ,,Forcing"? A central problem of Grounded Theory]

STRÜBING, JÖRG: Zwei Varianten von Grounded Theory? Zu den methodologischen und methodischen Differenzen zwischen Barney Glaser und Anselm Strauss [On the methodological and methodic differences between Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss]

REICHERTZ, JO: Abduktion: Die Logik der Entdeckung der Grounded Theory [Abduction: The logic of the discovery of Grounded Theory]

BERG, CHARLES & MARIANNE MILMEISTER: Im Dialog mit den Daten das eigene Erzählen der Geschichte finden: Über die Kodierverfahren der Grounded Theory-Methodologie [On coding strategies of Grounded Theory methodology]

MUCKEL, PETRA: Die Entwicklung von Kategorien mit der Methode der Grounded Theory [Developing categories with the method of Grounded Theory]

TRUSCHKAT, INGA, MANUELA KAISER-BELZ & VERA VOLK-MANN: Theoretisches Sampling in Qualifikationsarbeiten: Die Grounded-Theory-Methodologie zwischen Programmatik und Forschungspraxis [Theoretical sampling in theses of qualification]

KONOPASEK, ZDENEK: Das Denken mit ATLAS.ti sichtbar machen:  Computergestützte qualitative Analyse als textuelle Praxis [Making thinking visible with ATLAS.ti]

RIEMANN, GERHARD: Grounded theorizing als Cespräch: Anmer-kungen zu Anselm Strauss, der frühen Chicagoer Soziologie und der Arbeit in Forschungswerkstätten [Grounded theorizing as conversation]

BREUER, FRANZ, GÜNTER MEY & KATJA MRUCK: Subjektivität und Selbst-/Reflexivität in der Grounded-Theory-Methodologie [Subjecti-vity and self-reflexivity in Grounded Theory methodology]

 

 

 

MORITZ, CHRISTINE

Die Feldpartitur. Multikodale Transkription von Videodaten in der qualitativen Sozialforschung

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2011

128 pp., Euro 9.99; ISBN 3-531-17950-6

Keywords: transcription, video transcription, multicoding, multimedial coding, Grounded Theory, signs, symbols, field score

 

The field score. Multi-coding transcription of video data in qualitative social research

The author defines the field score as a sign and symbol system for the multi-codal transcription of video data, for researchers in the social sciences and humanities working qualitatively. Using this method video data are no longer exclusively directly translated into text data as done in current transcription conventions, but audiovisual processual data will be captured by transmitting carriers of meaning in a two-axes system, a score: in their linearity, and by using signs and symbols also in their simultaneity. This is based on the assumption that videos, based on images, sound, and process data are to be taken as an individual system of expression, symbols and signs – vis-à-vis the system of language. Thus they can be captured only to a small degree of its components, contained in the medium, with the methods of text transcription. All of this is explicated in theory, with three case descriptions.

 

 

 

 

NEJEZCHLEBA, MARTIN

CouchSurfing als soziokulturelle Praxis. Alternativer Tourismus im Zeitalter von Web 2.0

(Kulturwissenschaft 34)

Berlin: Lit Verlag 2011

184 pp., Euro 19.90; ISBN 3-643-11419-8

Keywords: couchsurfing, alternative tourism, tourism, hospitality, cultural sciences, reciprocity, host culture, hospitality communities, dualist realities, leisure, post-Fordism

 

CouchSurfing as socio-cultural practice. Alternative tourism in the age of the Web 2.0

The author considers CouchSurfing to be „alternative tourism“ in the age of the web 2.0, since more than three million registered users offer places to stay overnight („on their couch“) in the internet – for free, on the condition of mutuality. In the book this transnational network of hosts is researched – focusing socio-cultural practices of the users. With a perspective of the cultural sciences/folklore studies he inquires into questions of delimitations and their opposite, and on action strategies and styles of traveling. The author finds the members of this „community“ to be scattered around the globe, coming from bourgeois and middle class settings and influenced by post-Fordist patterns of living such as the intersection, or interconnection of leisure and work, and they tend to instrumentalize „online/offline structures“. The study is based on empirical work: participant observation, qualitative interviews as well as quantitative online questionnaire.

 

 

 

NEUMANN, MICHAEL & KERSTIN STÜSSEL (Eds.)

Magie der Geschichten. Weltverkehr, Literatur und Anthropologie in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts

Konstanz: University Press 2011

526 pp., Euro 51,-; ISBN 3-86253-013-7

Keywords: stories, narratives, magic of stories, Steinthal, H., Fontane, T., literature and anthropology, charisma, rule, Raabe, W.

 

The magic of stories. World traffic, literature and anthropology in the second half of the 19th century

Of the 27 papers of this volume the following are of special interest for anthropology:

NEUMANN, MICHAEL & KERSTIN STÜSSEL: „The ethnographer’s magic“ Realismus zwischen Weltverkehr und Schwellenkunde [Realism between world traffic and the knowledge on thresholds]

DÜRBECK, GABRIELE: „Meine wilden nackten Freunde im Stillen Meer“ Ethnographie und Realismus in der deutschen Südseeliteratur [Ethnography and realism in German literature on the South Seas]

FELSCH, PHILIPP: Humboldts Söhne. Das paradigmatische/epigonale Leben der Brüder Schlagintweit [Humboldt’s sons. The paradigmatic/ epigonal life of the Schlagintweit brothers]

HELMSTETTER, RUDOLF: Das realistische Opfer. Ethnologisches Wissen und das gesellschaftliche Imaginäre in der Poetologie Fontanes [The realistic sacrifice. Anthropological knowledge and the societal imaginary in the poetology of Fontane]

LOYEN, ULRICH VAN: Von der Völkerpsychologie zur Stellung der Semiten in der Weltgeschichte. Heymann Steinthal und der Beruf des Menschen [From Völkerpsychologie to Stellung der Semiten in der Weltgeschichte. Heymann Steinthal and the profession of men]

FRÖSCHLE, ULRICH: Geborene Führer? Zur Natur- und Kulturge-schichte „charismatischer Führung“ im 19. Jahrhundert [Born leaders? On the natural and cultural history of „charismatic rule“ in the 19th century]

SIMON, RALF: Die lokale Zirkulation des ethnologischen Wissens. Raabes Verwandlungsgeschichte Vom alten Proteus [The local circulation of anthropological knowledge. Raabe’s transformation story Vom alten Proteus ]

 

 

 

PRIDDAT, BIRGER P. & MICHAEL SCHMID (Eds.)

Korruption als Ordnung zweiter Art

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2011

238 pp., Euro 29.95; ISBN 3-531-17593-5

Keywords: corruption, clientelism, Mafia, political clientelism, Yakuza, illegal economy, informal structures, second order economy, economy and corruption

 

Corruption as a secondary type of order

In the book basic relations of an illegal or corrupt kind are analyzed as ‚institutions’ creating types of order: political clientelism, corruption, Mafia, warlords, terror – using theories of social capital, systems- and network theories, the economy of institutions, enlarged property rights concepts, and a concept of second-life economy. The Mafia, Yakuza, and Kenyan interfaces of political and economic corruption are a special focus, as are conditions for stability of corruption and mafiose structures and their ‚achievements’ (regardless of their illegal character).

GRAEFF, PETER: Korruption und Sozialkapital: eine handlungs-theoretische Perspektive auf die negativen externen Effekte korrupter Akteursbeziehungen [Corruption and social capital: an action-theoretical perspective on negative external effects of corrupt actor relations]

SCHMITT, MARCO: Parasitäre Strukturbildung - Einsichten aus System- und Netzwerktheorie in die Figur des Parasiten [Parasitic structure building – Insights from systems and network theories into the form of the parasite]

PRIDDAT, BIRGER P.: Korruption als second-life-economy [Corruption as second-life-economy]

KUSCHE, ISABEL: Klientelistische Strukturen und Ausdifferenzierung von Politik [Clientelistic structures and the qualification of politics]

SCHMID, MICHAEL: Mafia, Warlords, Terror, Korruption: Systeme rationaler Besitzsicherung [Mafia, warlords, terror, corruption: Systems of rationally securing property]

WEIHRICH, MARGIT: Don Corleone in Gomorrha: Entstehung, Stabilität und Veränderung mafioser Unternehmen [Don Corleone in Gomorrha: Emergence, stability and change of Mafia businesses]

STENNER, CHRISTINA: Die Funktion von Korruption. Über die Besonderheit informaler Institutionen in der japanischen Gesellschaft [The function of corruption. On the specificity of informal institutions in Japanese society]

KALEJA, THERESA: An Institutional Analysis of Corruption in Kenya

 

 

 

RÖSCHENTHALER, UTE 

Geistiges Eigentum oder Kulturerbe? Lokale Strategien im Umgang mit kulturellen Ressourcen

Sociologus 61.2011:46-67

Keywords: cultural heritage, intellectual property rights, globalization, glocalization

 

##Cultural Heritage or Intellectual Property Rights? Local strategies in Dealing with Cultural Resources

Cultural Heritage and Intellectual Property Rights are two means of protecting cultural achievement. They are western concepts that have been widely adopted by nation states in the course of globalisation and promoted by arguments of the circulation and preservation of cultural goods in the interest of humankind. The international discussion on immaterial cultural property generally neglects the existence of local concepts of rights in cultural institutions and their history. This article analyses local concepts of rights in immaterial cultural goods in southwest cameroon. It illustrates the importance of their history for the understanding of what exactly is preserved by cultural heritage. In the course of the growing transatlantic trade activities, the owners of localized cults and rituals transformed these institutions into an alienable resource. Since then interested parties were able to acquire them under certain conditions, use them for income generation and sell them to other interested parties. The sale concerned not the rights of original creators but those of ownership and performance. Since the 1990s, these cultural institutions were increasingly understood as exclusive, traditional cultural goods restricted to specific administrative units. This development has to be seen within the framework of the UNESCO activities of preserving cultural heritage on the national level. In this way, the UNESCO encourages the establishment of concepts of traditional culture owned by ethnic groups even though theses cultural goods may have been acquired rather recently and are owned by groups of individuals who paid others for obtaining their ownership rights.##

 

 

 

RUDNITZKI, GERHARD

Die frühe Arbeitsgemeinschaft Ethnomedizin in Heidelberg: Die Botschaft der 70er - ein verbindliches Erbe für die Medizinanthropologie im 21. Jahrhundert?

Curare 34.2011:230-236

Keywords: Society for Ethnomedicine (AgE), healing knowledge, Devereux, G., cure

 

##The Message of the Seventies - An Obliging Heritage for 'Ethno-medicine' in the 21st century?

Invited by Joachim Sterly/Hamburg to co-found the Society for Ethnomedicine (AgE) (1970) I worked together with him and Wemer Stöcklin/Basel to build up the journal Ethnomedizin/Ethnomedicine journal for interdisciplinary research (1971). I felt attracted by the interdisci-plinary perspective of both of these projects and lived to see the growing insight into the inter-ethnical analogies and the concepts of the knowledge to cure ("Heilwissen") in other cultural communities. As a doctor in rehabilitation medicine I discovered the (psycho) therapeutic way of this ethno-medical perspective, especially in the context of family dynamics. On the other hand I was irritated by the fact, that there was much knowledge with the many disciplines in our society, but no ability and skills to work with the dynamics of our group in using its scientific and personal resources. My paper will show that researchers and their objects in the social fields are building up new group-settings. The developmental chance of this group-setting depends on communicating the experiences of these group members in mutual respect. In this attitude Georges Devereux (Paris) agreed with us, when we discussed our research with him.##

 

 

 

SCHAREIKA, NIKOLAUS, EVA SPIES & PIERRE-YVES LE MEUR (Eds.)

Auf dem Boden der Tatsachen. Festschrift für Thomas Bierschenk

(Mainzer Beiträge zur Afrikaforschung 28)

Köln: Köppe Verlag 2011

516 pp., Euro 38,-; ISBN 3-89645-828-5

Keywords: festschrift T. Bierschenk, Bierschenk, T., Fulbe, statehood, development, power

 

On a factual basis. Festschrift for Thomas Bierschenk

There are 30 articles in this festschrift celebrating the 60th birthday, following Bierschenk’s motto that the field determines what is there, what is to be done, following the „social realities of the field“, avoiding naive empiricism or romantic idealization of local voices. He has worked on the state and statehood, development, local forms of power, and strategic Fulbe groups, all based on long-term field research, mainly in West African Benin and the sultanate of Oman. He has focused on that which is „in process“, hybrids, contradictions... – to discover sources of social dynamics, innovation and change.

 

 

 

SCHARFE, MARTIN

Signaturen der Kultur. Studien zum Alltag & zu seiner Erforschung

Marburg: Jonas Verlag 2011

240 pp., Euro 20,-; ISBN 3-89445-459-3

Keywords: everyday life, folklore, cultural science, signatures of culture, material culture

 

Symbols of culture. Studies of everyday life and its analysis

„Phenomena of everyday life“ should, according to the author, be considered as important in cultural analysis. This volume includes several studies on technology and civilization, embodiment and experience, material culture and museum, and spheres of the unconscious in culture and cultural science. Taking the artifact, a gesture etc. as starting points, the author proceeds to wider cultural historical and theoretical contexts in order to show in such cases how to read „signatures of culture“.

 

 

 

SCHINDLBECK, MARKUS

,,Humboldts Vermächtnis". Eine Antwort auf Larissa Förster

Paideuma 57.2011:251-265

Keywords: museology, exhibitions

 

„Humboldt’s legacy“. An answer to Larissa Förster

##This article replies to the exhibition review by Larissa Förster by explaining the context of the exhibition and its setting in a wider perspective. A good review of an exhibition should include some research into the conditions and the time schedule that are decisive for the success of such an enterprise. Mainly two factors were decisive for the final shape of the exhibition "Anders zur Welt kommen": the political influences of representatives of the main cultural institutions involved, and the rather short time period of less than one year for an exhibition of over 1500 square metres. The main misunderstanding of the review lies in the fact that Förster uses statements made by the political representatives of the cultural institutions and compares them with statements by the work of the curators in the exhibition. The exhibition was never intended as a preview of the planned Humboldt-Forum but to give some idea of the work in progress. Normally this is not done. Neither the new museum in Paris nor other large institutions put on special exhibitions as previews of their new museums. In this context it is also evident that an exhibition can never touch and deal with all possible themes. And even if the presentation of the subject of colonialism is important, that does not mean that every special exhibition has to deal with it. The exhibition 'Anders zur Welt kommen" offered several new perspectives not only in its design and presentation, but also in how it described and explained objects which will be further developed in future exhibitions of the Ethnologisches Museum Berlin.##

 

 

 

 

 

 

SCHMIDT, ROBERT & JÖRG VOLBERS

Öffentlichkeit als methodologisches Prinzip. Zur Tragweite einer praxis-theoretischen Grundannahme

Zeitschrift für Soziologie 40.2011:24-41

Keywords: Practice Theory; observation; social epistemology, distinction, Bourdieu, P., praxeology

 

##Publicness as a Methodological Principle. The Scope of a Basic Tenet of Practice Theory

##The assumption that social practices are public and thus observable is a basic tenet of practice-theoretical approaches. On the one hand, the "publicness assumption" defines the praxeological criticism of subjecti-vism as well as of relying on hypothetical structural entities. On the other hand, a certain conception of the "publicness assumption" allows critics to reproach praxeology for its limited analytical scope. In this article, we explicate in several steps the contentious - and often implicit - basic assumption that social practices are public in several steps. We sketch a notion of social practices and their fundamental "publicness" which avoids presentist misinterpretations and conceptualises sociality as chains of practices across time and space. We do so by referring to the works of Schatzki, Wittgenstein, Giddens, and Latour. In these, the carriers of practices (artifacts, symbols, media, bodies) and the translocal structures they establish acquire particular significance. In a further step, we present some methodological considerations corresponding to the "publicness assumption" and exemplify these by referring to Bourdieu's study of "Distinction".##

 

 

 

SCHRAPE, JAN-FELIX

Social Media, Massenmedien und gesellschaftliche Wirklichkeitskon-struktion

Berliner Journal für Soziologie 21.2011:407-429

Keywords: social media, mass media, media, public sphere, network communications, networks

 

##Social media, mass media and social reality construction

Since the 1990s, the Internet serves as a projection space for varied visions of a more transparent and integrative public sphere and a less dominant role of mass media in the social construction of a "common" reality. In light of those expectations, this text scrutinizes the relations between digital social media and mass media from a systems-theoretical perspective and observes the present preferences of German onliners as well as the content quality of network communications (weblogs, podcasts, social networking services, microblogging). The investigations lead to the conclusion that social media and mass media are situated on comple-mentary levels of publicness.##

 

 

 

SCHROEDER, JENS

‚Killer games’ versus ‚We will fund violence’. The perception of digital games and mass media in Germany and Australia

Frankfurt/M.: Lang Verlag 2011

350 pp., Euro 58,95; ISBN 3-631-60611-7

Keywords: digital anthropology, cyber anthropology, killer games, games (digital), culture and games

 

##While the assessment of digital games in Germany is framed by a high-culture critique, which regards them as an illegitimate activity, they are enjoyed by a wider demographic as a ‚legitimate' pastime in Australia. The book analyses the social history of digital gaming in both countries and relates it to their socio-cultural traditions. Concerning social history, Australia almost depicts an inverse mirror image of Germany. Its foundational dynamics, closely associated with different egalitarianisms, led to a different form of distinction than in Germany - a country whose national self-conception was closely related to groups which perpetuated an idealistic notion of Kultur and later integrated it into a rigid class system. The book not only demonstrates how the discourses on games follow long-established patterns of rejection and approval of mass media but also regard them as an access to the inner workings of both societies. How the games are perceived tells us a lot about German and Australian identity.##

 

 

 

SCHUBERT, CORNELIUS

Die Technik operiert mit. Zur Mikroanalyse medizinischer Arbeit

Zeitschrift für Soziologie 40.2011:174-190

Keywords: medicine technology, agency, ANT, surgery and culture, machine agency

 

##What Tools Do. Towards a Micro-Analysis of Medical Work

Medical work is deeply mediated by technology. In line with constructivist studies of medicine and technology, this paper conceptualizes routine medical work as being fundamentally marked by uncertainty and indeterminate situations. To account for the agency of the means of medical practice in such situations, current discussions about the agency of technology are critically reflected and adapted to the analysis of medical technologies. Drawing on ethnographic observations in operating theaters this paper traces the empirical distribution of medical work between ensembles of humans and machines as well as the handling of uncertainties in daily practice.##

 

 

 

SEBALD, GERD & JAN WEYAND

Zur Formierung sozialer Gedächtnisse

Zeitschrift für Soziologie 40.2011:174-189

Keywords: memory, collective memory, Halbwachs, M., Sociology of Knowledge

 

##On the Formation of Social Memory

Contemporary sociological theoretizing about social memory affords two alternatives: either theories follow the suggestions of Halbwachs and ground social memory in collective interactions, or they start from processes of functional differentiation and connect the formation of social memory to key media and dominant forms. In discussing both variants of the sociological understanding of social memory, we identify factors of variation and selection in its formation. As factors of variation we identify functional, cultural, and generational differentiation, mediality, authen-ticity, and the communicative genres of narrativity and discursivity. These factors are combined with relevance as a mechanism of selection within a theory of the formation of social memory based on the sociology of knowledge.##

 

 

 

SIMON, UDO ET AL. (Eds.)

Reflexivity, media, and visuality. Including an E-book-version in PDF-Format on CD-ROM

(Ritual dynamics and the science of ritual IV)

Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag 2011

723 pp., Euro 108,-; ISBN 3-447-06204-6

Keywords: ritual, theory of ritual, reflexivity and ritual, discourse on ritual, sacrifice, Hopi, modernity, Tylor, E.B., Frazer, J., media and ritual, cyborgs, dance, civic rituals, death and ritual

 

##Held in Heidelberg from September 29 to October 2, 2008 by the collaborative research center SFB 619 "Ritual Dynamics", the international conference "Ritual Dynamics and the Science of Ritual" assembled most of the leading experts on rituals studies and more than 600 participants for the purpose of reassessing the traditional subject in view of the latest research. The results, which are presented in five volumes, are pathbreaking for future transcultural, interdisciplinary and multimethodical research on rituals. The convention was marked by the broad range of disciplines and the corresponding diversity of methods. It embraced a great variety of topics in terms of cultural geography and spanned a time horizon from antiquity to the present. The proceedings show how broadly the term ritual can be defined, as well as the conditions, modes and functions of ritual actions in different cultures of the present and past.##

Section I: Reflexivity and Discourse on Ritual. Edited by UDO SIMON

SIMON, UDO: Reflexivity and Discourse on Ritual - Introductory Reflexions

WHITEHOUSE, HARVEY: Harvey Whitehouse Religious Reflexivity and Transmissive Frequency

GENTZ, JOACHIM in collaboration with CHRISTIAN MEYER: Ritual and Rigidity in Commentaries and Court Debates: Patterns of Reflexivity in Pre-Modern Chinese Discourses on Ritual

SCHMITT, RÜDIGER: Magic, Ritual Healing, and the Discourse on Ritual Authority in the Old Testament

SCHÖRNER, GÜNTHER: Sacrifice East and West: Experiencing Ritual Difference in the Roman Empire

FUGGER, DOMINIK: What About the Bean King? Reflections on a Specific Ritual between 1500 and 1900 and their Implications for the Methodology of Ritual-Analysis

SANNER, HANS-ULRICH: "A Message about Life": Performance and Reflexivity in Hopi Indian Ritual Clowning

MARKUSSEN, HEGE IRENE: Ritual Criticism and the Alevi Cem Ritual

ROSATI, MASSIMO: Ritual and Reflectivity in the Sociological Discourse on Modernity

BÜHRMANN, MARIO: Culture and Rites in Motion: The Conception of Culture and Ritualistic Actions in the Works of Edward Burnett Tylor

QUACK, JOHANNES: Reflexive Remarks on Science, Ritual, and Neutrality in the Social Sciences

BERGUNDER, MICHAEL: Global History, Religion, and Discourse on Ritual

CHIDESTER, DAVID: Imperial Reflections, Colonial Situations: James Frazer, Henri-Alexandre Junod, and Indigenous Ritual in Southern Africa

 

Section II: Ritual and Media. Edited by CHRISTIANE BROSIUS & KARIN POLIT

BROSIUS, CHRISTIANE & KARIN POLIT: Introducing Media Rituals and Ritual Media

HUGHES-FREELAND, FELICIA: Divine Cyborgs? Ritual Spirit Presence and the Limits of Media

LEISTLE, BERNHARD: Difficult Heritage: Time and the Other in Moroccan Rituals of Possession

PASCHE GUIGNARD, FLORENCE: Religious Rituals on Video-Sharing Websites

FONTEIN, JOST: The Politics of the Dead: Living Heritage, Bones, and Commemoration in Zimbabwe

STOHRER, ULRIKE:   Ritual Performance, Cultural Policy, and the Construction of a "National Heritage" in Yemen

VEDEL, KAREN: Clothing the Suomussalmi Silent People: From Site-Specific Dance Performance to Ritually Informed Community Event

HURD, MADELEINE:  Reporting on Civic Rituals: Text, Performers, and Audience

MADER, ELKE: Stars in Your Eyes: Ritual Encounters with Shah Rukh Khan in Europe

 

Section III: Ritual and Visuality. Edited by PETRA H. HÖSCH & CORINNA WESSELS-MEVISSEN 

HÖSCH, PETRA H. & CORINNA WESSELS-MEVISSEN: Ritual and Visuality - Introductory Remarks

KNIGGE SALIS, CARSTEN: Hieroglyphs of Praise: The Dynamic Praise of Gods as Represented and Prescribed by Ancient Egyptian Ritual Texts

HUNTER, THOMAS M.: Thomas M. Hunter Icons, Indexes, and Interpretants of a Balinese Ritual Artefact: The Pengajeg

RÖSCH, PETRA H.: Pillars of Faith: Visuality and Ritual Space in Chinese Buddhism

WESSELS-MEVISSEN, CORINNA:  Festival Vehicles and Motif Lamps: Reflections on Visual Elements in South Indian Temple Ritual

 

Section IV: Ritual Design. Edited by GREGOR AHN

AHN, GREGOR: Ritual Design - an Introduction

AHN, GREGOR: The Re-Embodiment of Mr. Spock and the Re-Incarnation of Voldemort: Two Examples of Ritual Design in Contemporary Fiction

MAAKER, ERIK DE, ERIK VENBRUX & THOMAS QUARTIER: Reinventing "All Souls' Day": Spirituality, Contemporary Art, and the Remembrance of the Dead

QUARTIER, THOMAS: Funeral Design in the Netherlands: Structures and Meanings of Non-Ecclesiastic Funerals

FRENZ, MATTHIAS: The Common Practice of Ritual Design in Southern India: Observations at the Marian Sanctuary of Velankanni

HORNBORG, ANNE-CHRISTINE: Designing Rites to Re-Enchant Secularised Society: Cases from Contemporary Sweden

SNOEK, JAN A.M.:  Researcher and Researched Rituals

HOUSEMAN, MICHAEL: Trying to Make a Difference with "Ritual Design“

 

 

 

STEDEROTH, DIRK & TIMO HOYER (Eds.)

Der Mensch in der Medizin. Kulturen und Konzepte

(Lebenswissenschaften im Dialog 13)

Freiburg: Alber Verlag 2011

304 pp., Euro 42,-; ISBN 3-495-48496-8

Keywords: medical traditions, cultures of medicine, medical anthropology, Mesmer, F.A., Āyurveda, mind and body, Paracelsus, homeopathy, psychoanalysis, neuro-enhancement, genetic medicine, patients, healers, psychosomatic medicine 

 

Man in medicine. Cultures and concepts

BRUCHHAUSEN, WALTER: „Traditionelle Medizin“ in Afrika. Kranke und Heiler als Objekt böser und guter Absichten [Traditional medicine in Africa. Patients and healers as object of good and bad intentions]

BAUER, MATTHIAS: Chinesische  Medizin zwischen Tradition und Wissenschaft [Chinese medicine between tradition and science]

CHOPRA, ANANDA SAMIR: Körper, Geist und Selbst – Bemerkungen zum Menschenbild des Āyurveda [Body, mind and self – Remarks on the image of man in Āyurveda]

HEINEMANN, GOTTFRIED: Hippokratische Medizin und menschliche Natur [Hippocratic medicine and human nature]

EUSTERSCHULTE, ANNE: Alchimia Medica. Zur Theorie des Leben-digen in der Paracelsischen Medizintheorie [On the theory of the living in the medical theory of Paracelsus]

SCHOTT, HEINZ: Magnetisches Fluidum: Heilkraft der Natur à la Mesmer [Magnetic fluidum: The healing power of nature according to Mesmer]

JÜTTE, ROBERT: Homöopathie – eine alt-neue Heilkunst [Homeopathy – an old-new art of healing]

KÖCHY, KRISTIAN: Der Mensch im Kontext von Geburt und Tod. Die Medizinkonzepte von Carl Gustav Carus und Rudolf Virchow [Man in the context of birth and death. Medical concepts of Carl Gustav Carus and Rudolf Virchow]

FANGERAU, HEINER & MICHAEL MARTIN: Kontrolle des Lebendigen: Medizin und Menschenmaschinen [Control of the living: Medicine and human machines]

LEUZINGER-BOHLEBER, MARIANNE: Psychoanalyse und die Ambivalenz des medizinisch-technischen Fortschritts. Diskutiert am Beispiel der Pränataldiagnostik [Psychoanalysis and the ambivalence of medical-technological progress – discussed in the case of prenatal diagnostics]

HOYER, TIMO: Psychosomatische Medizin in sozialer Verantwortung – Alexander Mitscherlich im Kontext [Psychosomatic medicine and social responsibility: Alexander Mitscherlich in context]

EIRUND, WOLFGANG: Zwischen Freiheit und Notwendigkeit. Auswir-kungen neurowissenschaftlichen Denkens auf das psychosomatische Menschenbild und die Arzt-Patienten-Beziehung [Between freedom and necessity. Effects of neuro-scientific thought on the psychosomatic image of man and the physician-patient relationship]

REHMANN-SUTTER, CHRISTOPH: Nur Träume der genetischen Medi-zin? [Only dreams of genetic medicine?]

KIPKE, ROLAND: Medizinisch-anthropologische Aspekte des Neuro- Enhancements [Medical-anthropological aspects of neuro-enhancement]

STEDEROTH, DIRK: Der Leib der Medizin. Ansätze zu einer integralen medizinischen Anthropologie [The body of medicine. Approaches of an integral medical anthropology]

 

 

 

STEGBAUER, CHRISTIAN

Reziprozität. Einführung in soziale Formen der Gegenseitigkeit. 2. Auflage

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2011

154 pp., Euro 16.99; ISBN 3-531-17641-3

Keywords: reciprocity, direct reciprocity, generalized reciprocity, exchange, social exchange

Reciprocity. Introduction to social forms of reciprocity. 2nd edition

Stegbauer deals with everyday social reciprocity in this introductory textbook. He argues that causes for this behavior are not to be sought in individual purpose-means calculations but is rooted in the relations of the partners of exchange. There is no single-dimensional principle in this kind of reciprocity, but relations between those exchanging govern the way and value of products being exchanged. Thus, the author starts by using Marshall Sahlins’s categories of direct and generalized reciprocity, and continues by discussing the reciprocity of roles, of perspectives, in order to conclude by designing a „sociology of social relations“.

 

 

 

STEINHOFF, HEIKE

Queer buccaneers. (De)Constructing boundaries in the PIRATES OF THE CARIBBEAN film series

(Transnational and transatlantic American studies 10)

Berlin: Lit Verlag 2011

149 pp., Euro 19.90; ISBN 3-643-11100-5

Keywords: pirates, discourse analysis, post-structuralist analysis, film analysis, sexuality

 

##Pirates captivate the western cultural imagination at the beginning of the 21st century. QUEER BUCCANEERS addresses this phenomenon through an analysis of the Disney film series PIRATES OF THE CARIBBEAN. Reading the films from a variety of post-structuralist perspectives, this study demonstrates the contradictory discourses and power relations that characterize the series. It argues that 'piracy' constitutes a sliding signifier that facilitates the (de)construction of discursive boundaries of gender, sexuality, race, ethnicity, class and nationality.##

 

 

 

VOSS, EHLER

Domestikationen des Fremden. Die Interpretation von Trance und Besessenheit in der Ethnologie und der Kultur des medialen Heilens

Curare 34.2011:201-213

Keywords: alterity, embodiment, mediumistic healing, healing, trance, possession, self, Waldenfels, B.

 

##Domestications of foreignness. The Interpretation of Trance and Possession in Anthropology and in the Culture of Mediumistic Healing

The handling of trance and possession is often brought into focus in anthropological literature and has challenged rational explanations. The interpretation of such experiences leads to questions concerning the conceptualizing of the body and the soul, and thus „the Self“ as well as leading to the question of the relation between "the Self" and "the Other". The emic discourse of the mediumistic healers in Germany I have researched as well as the etic discourse of anthropologists about experiences of trance and possession in religious contexts oscillate between finding the origin of such experiences inside and outside the Self. On the one hand "spirits", "Energies" and similar things are seen as autonomous entities affecting the Self, while on the other hand they are seen as having originated in the Self through projections of the unsconscious or through imagination. Even some phenomenological approaches which actually aim to conceptualize experiences beyond dichotomies such as inner and outer or the Self and the Other, like the much cited approach of Thomas Csordas, tend to entangle themselves in such dichotomies and tend to trace back experiences of the other as having originated in the Self. This paper traces different emic and etic conceptions of body, soul, the Self and the other and, against this background, argues with reference to the German philosopher Bernhard Waldenfels for a phenomenology of otherness which is grounded in the assumption of an otherness of experience itself and offers an alternative to one-sided externalizing or internalizing inter-pretations.##

 

 

 

WENDT, HELGE

Die missionarische Gesellschaft. Mikrostrukturen einer kolonialen Globa-lisierung

(Missionsgeschichtliches Archiv 17)

Stuttgart: Steiner Verlag 2011

321 pp., Euro 54,-; ISBN 3-515-09864-9

Keywords: mission, missionaries, globalization and mission, segregation politics, history and mission

 

The missionary society. Microstructures of a colonial globalization

The author assesses Christian mission, Catholic and Protestant, as a way of globalization, very much in concord with colonialism. The focus is not on „theological visions of Christianity and belief“ but on social processes triggered by mission, social manifestations of the „missionary situation“. Wendt thus focuses on specific local situations and discusses mission settlements as locations of social order, forms of missionary segregation politics, education and mission, indigenous helpers and native clericals. The final sections deals with the „missionary society“ as a global-historical factor.

 

 

 

WOLFRADT, UWE

Ethnologie und Psychologie. Die Leipziger Schule der Völkerpsychologie

Berlin: Reimer Verlag 2011

258 pp., Euro 59,-; ISBN 3-496-02839-0

Keywords: ethnology and psychology, psychology and ethnology, Bastian, A., Wundt, W., Ratzel, F., Weule, K., Vierkandt, A., Thurnwald, R., Hellpach, W., Leipzig School

 

Ethnology and psychology. The Leipzig School of the psychology of peoples

In Germany, the disciplines of ethnology and psychology emerged in Leipzig. The author describes the relations between them exemplarily in seven influential persons: Adolf Bastian, Wilhelm Wundt, Friedrich Ratzel, Karl Weule, Alfred Vierkandt, Richard Thurnwald and Willy Hellpach. These scholars propagated distinct concepts of their fields, like: anthropology as ethnic psychology (Bastian); psychology of peoples as psychic evolutionary history (Wundt); anthropology as historical cultural geography (Ratzel); anthropology as cultural foundational science (Weule); anthropology as ethnic sociology (Vierkandt); psychology of peoples as social ethno-psychology (Thurnwald); psychology of peoples as ethno-characterology. Another chapter is devoted to the idea of structure in ethnology and psychology, which is elaborated in the case of Felix Krueger and Fritz Krause, and influences of this approach to structure is briefly described in ten other scholars. The final chapter asks if there are remnants of the idea of structure even today: in the context of time, in persons, and in contents.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ZEITSCHRIFT FÜR KULTURAUSTAUSCH

Stuttgart: Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen 61.2011

Keywords: growth limits, translation, Enlightenment, doubt

 

The individual issues deal with the following topics:

61,1.2011: Über Wachstum und seine Grenzen [Limits to growth]

61,2/3.2011: What? Wie wir fremde Sprachen übersetzen [The way we translate foreign languages]

61,4.2011: Zweifeln ist menschlich. Aufklärung im 21. Jahrhundert [Doubting is human. Enlightenment in the 21st century]

 

 

 

ZIEHE, IRENE & ULRICH HÄGELE (Eds.)

Visuelle Medien und Forschung. Über den wissenschaftlich-methodischen Umgang mit Fotografie und Film

(Visuelle Kultur. Studien und Materialien 5)

Münster: Waxmann Verlag 2011

286 pp., Euro 34.90; ISBN 3-8309-2515-6

Keywords: visual anthropology, film, photography, ethnography and photography

 

Visual media and research. How to deal with photography and film scientifically and methodologically

The following papers are based on the conference of the same title in Berlin in 2010.

BARTH, MANUELA et al.: Fotografie und Film: Forschungsfeld und wissenschaftliche Methode [Photography and film as a field of research and scientific method]

LIPP, THOROLF & MARTINA KLEINERT: Im Feld - im Film - im Fernsehen. Über filmende Ethnologen und ethnografierende Filmer [On filming anthropologists and ethnographically active film-makers]

CHRISTOLOVA, LENA: Zwischen den Chiffren von Regnault und der Taxidermie von Flaherty. Wissenschaftsanspruch und Massenkulturphä-nomene im ethnografischen Film zwischen 1895 und 1931 [Between the ciphers of Regnault and the taxidermy of Flaherty]

HÄGELE, ULRICH: Forscher im Fokus der Fotografie. Zur visuellen Konstruktion ethnografischer Wissenschaft [On the visual construction of ethnographic science]

FORSTER, RALF & VOLKER PETZOLD: Erich Wustmann - mit Fotografie und Film über ,,fremde Kulturen“ erzählen [Erich Wustmann – narrating „foreign cultures“ using photography and film]

SCHINDLBECK, MARKUS: Fotografie am Mittelsepik in Neuguinea: Inszenierung und Motiv [Photography at the Sepik in New Guinea: Stage-setting and motif]

ALSHEIMER, RAINER: Jakob Spieth als Ethnologe. Zwei fotoanthropo-logische Fallstudien [Jakob Spieth as anthropologist. Two case studies]

FISCHER, MANUELA & AUGUSTO OYUELA-CAYCEDO: Der zeitlose Rahmen. Fotografien aus der Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Kolumbien [Photographies of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia]

PECKSKAMP-LÜRßEN, INGRID: Richard Fleischhut: Ein Fotograf und Filmer als Ethnograf [Richard Fleischhut: A photographer and film-maker as ethnographer]

SCHLEGELMILCH, CORDIA: ,,Zeit ohne Bilder" - Ein Widerspruch zur medialen Präsenz in der Zeit der Wende? [„Time without pictures“ – A contradiction regarding medial presence in the era of the Wende?]

BULLINGER, MATTHIAS & THOMAS OVERDICK mit einem Text von Peter Schanz: Blaue Tage und Container. Die maritimen Bilderwelten von Peter Schanz [The maritime image worlds of Peter Schanz]

STOLLFUß, SVEN: Bewegt-Bilder in der Medizin: der technisch zugerichtete ärztliche Blick zwischen Epistemologie und Spektakel [Moving pictures in medicine: the technically prepared gaze of the physician between epistemology and spectacle]

ABEL, THOMAS: Bilder zweiter Ordnung. Untersuchung digitaler fotografischer Portraitpraxis mittels Fotografie(n) [Images of second order. Analyzing digital photographic portrait practice with photographies]

SCHINDLER, LARISSA & TOBIAS BOLL: Visuelle Medien und die (Wieder-)Herstellung von Unmittelbarkeit [Visual media and the (re-)construction of imediacy]

STOFFREGEN, ANNA CHRISTINA, MARTIN JONAS, MICHAELA HAIBL: Wahrnehmung als Mittel zur Materialgenerierung – Wahrneh-mung als Indikator [Perception as a means to generate materials – Perception as an indicator]

BEHLER, NEELE: Entgrenzte Forschung an entgrenzter Arbeit. Ein Essay über Grenzgänge im Entstehungsprozess einer Abschlussarbeit [An essay on frontier crossings in the process of writing a thesis]

LÜTHI, EVA: Ethnografische Fotografie im Einkaufszentrum [Ethnogra-phic photography in the shopping mall]

 

 

 

 

ZIEMANN, ANDREAS

Medienkultur und Gesellschaftsstruktur. Soziologische Analysen

Wiesbaden: VS Verlag 2011

397 pp., Euro 34.95; ISBN 3-531-17434-1

Keywords: media culture, society and media, subject and media, action theory

 

Medica culture and social structure. Sociological analyses

Ziemann argues that late-modern society has developed a rigid dependence on media technologies and (audio-visual) mass media. This has led to an operational adaption and change of structure in many societal areas, but also new ways of thinking, worlds of imagination, forms of action of subjects have emerged. The author problematizes the reciprocal, or mutual relation of production and dependence of media, society, and subject, and confronts the sociological theory of society with observations in the areas of cultural history and changing media science. He concludes that media culture has to be conceded a categorial and also practical pre-eminence.

 

 

 

ZIPS, WERNER & MARKUS WEILENMANN (Eds.)

The governance of legal pluralism. Empirical studies from Africa and beyond

Wien: Lit Verlag 2011

304 pp., Euro 29.90; ISBN 3-8258-9822-9

Keywords: legal pluralism, governance, Salafiyya activism, custom, institutional pluralism, nature conservation, human rights, family law, reproductive health, indigenous law, law, Islamism

 

##The notion of governance subsumes analytic approaches that have recently become highly popular in social sciences. It directs attention to a holistic understanding of the participation of non-state actors in political processes, the resulting policies, their facilitation and implementation, but also their threats and social consequences. This volume assembles empirical studies from Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America to shed light on the complex governance interactions determined by different constellations of legal pluralism and, in turn, reshaping these dynamic arrangements.##

ZIPS, WERNER & MARKUS WEILENMANN: Introduction: Gover-nance and Legal Pluralism - An Emerging Symbiotic Relationship?

TURNER, BERTRAM: Salafiyya Activism in the Moroccan Souss: Legal Framing, demand for Justice and Social Integration of an Islamic Movement

LAMBI, JULIUS: The Struggle for Democratic Governance in Cameroon: An Analysis of the February 2008 Protests

UBINK, JANINE: Land, Chiefs and Custom in Peri-Urban Ghana. Traditional Governance in an Environment of Legal and Institutional Pluralism

WEILENMANN,MARKUS: Between Ethnicity, Competing Powers and Legal Change - a Statistical Investigation on the Working of Burundi's State Courts

ZIPS-MAIRITSCH, MANUELA: Kalahari Struggles. Indigeneity, Internal and Nature Conservation in Botswana - Interviews with Mathambo Ngakaeaja

MOGWE, ALICE: Human Rights Struggles. Where Social Conflicts and Confrontations are Negotiated - The Case of the Displacement of 'Basarwa' from the Central Kalahari Game Reserve in Botswana

ZIPS, WERNER: Fashion Design under a Leopard's Skin. Emerging Forms

of Complementary Governance in Botswana

RABO, ANNIKA: Legal Pluralism and Family Law in Syria

SAFITRI, MYRNA: Langkawana’s Community Forest: Decentralization and Legal Pluralism in Indonesian State Forestlands

UMALI, VIOLEDA A.: Dynamics of Legal Pluralism in Policy-Making: The Case of the Population and Reproductive Health Debate in the Philippines

GABBERT, WOLFGANG: Indigenous Law as state Law. Recent Trends in Latin American Legal Pluralism

 

 

 

ZUCKERHUT, PATRICIA & BARBARA GRUBNER (Eds.)

Gewalt und Geschlecht. Sozialwissenschaftliche Perspektiven auf sexua-lisierte Gewalt

Frankfurt/M.: Lang Verlag 2011

160 pp., Euro 29.90; ISBN 3-631-61289-7

Keywords: violence and gender, gender violence, apartheid, colonialism and violence, migration and violence

 

Violence and gender. Perspectives in the social sciences on sexualized violence

Sexualized assault has always been part of personalized and organized violence, in civilian contexts, in spaces open to violence, or in war. Present-day violence and conflict, however, show increased sex-based cruelty, and one may ask whether such forms of injury, torture and mutilation are new forms of violence. This has been researched only marginally until now.

GRUBNER, BARBARA: Vorwort: sozialwissenschaftliche Perspektiven auf Gewalt und Geschlecht [Perspectives on violence and gender in the social scienctes]

ZUCKERHUT, PATRICIA: Einleitung: Geschlecht und Gewalt [Introduction. Gender and violence]

FUCHS, BRIGITTE: „Weiblichkeit“, Monstrosität und „Rasse“. Anthropophagie, Ökonomie und Doppelmoral im Zeitalter der Conquista [„Femininity“, monstrosity, and „race“. Anthropophagy, economy and double standard in the age of Conquista]

ZUCKERHUT, PATRICIA: Lateinamerika – Innere und äußere Grenz-ziehungen der Moderne. Sexualisierte, rassialisierte und epistemische Gewalt als Grundlagen von Kolonialität und Modernität [Latin America – Internal and external borders in modernity. Sexualized, racialized, and epistemic violence and basis of coloniality and modernity]

HABINGER, GABRIELE: „Genderless white power“ - Europäische Reise-schriftstellerinnen als Befürworterinnen und „Agentinnen“ des Kolonia-lismus [European travelogue writers as promotors and „agents“ of colonialism]

HEINDL, GERLINDE: Die grausame Logik des Karnophallogozentrismus in Carmen Boullosas Son vacas, somos puercos [The cruel logic of carno-phallogocentrism in Carmen Boullosas Son vacas, somos puercos]

GRUBNER, BARBARA: Frauenmigration und Gewalt. Überlegungen zu transnationalen Arbeits- und Gewaltverhältnissen im Privathaushalt [Female migration and violence. Reflections on transnational conditions of labor and violence in private households]

KASTNER, JENS & ELISABETH TUIDER: Zentrale RandBewegungen. Zur Konstitution von Gewalt an der Schnittstelle von Geschlecht, Sexualität, Ethnizität [Central borderMovements. The constitution of violence at the interface of gender, sexuality, ethnicity]

MEZGOLITS, MARTINA: Sexualisierte Gewalt und Apartheid am Beispiel Südafrika [Sexualized violence and apartheid, the case of South Africa]

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

AFRICA

 

 

 

BEEK, JAN

„Every car has an offence on it“: Register polizeilichen Handelns bei Verkehrskontrollen in Nordghana

Sociologus 61.2011:197-222

Keywords: corruption, negotiation and dominance, ambiguous police work, police practice and culture

 

##Police traffic stops in Northern Ghana

Police traffic checks in West Africa are normally only mentioned with reference to corruption. Yet anthropological research of these everyday bureaucratic interactions can also develop how police officers implement the law, refer to morality and sociality. Police practices evolve in adaptation to internal and external conditions and must constantly be socially legitimized. On the everyday level, the police are not enforcers of the state's monopoly on violence, but must establish their dominance through negotiation. Thereby the discretion of police officers is guided by multiple rationalities or registers. In order to countervail uncertainties in specific situations they dynamically choose registers which are not clearly separated, and they often draw them simultaneously. Selecting violence, public order, formal law, or sociality enables heterogeneous and ambiguous police work, in the face of missing formal guidelines and low legitimacy of the police. Corruption can be understood as a special subset of police discretion, as deviant and functional practices at the margins of it. Law and social order remain meaningful during these interactions, even if they are ultimately violated. Since the actual use of registers is highly influenced by civilians, police rationality can be seen as the result of everyday negotiations. Civilians have considerable means of influencing the police through the use of violence, connections, status and money. Police action cannot be understood as unilateral enforcement of either the state's laws or private interests; rather it is open to expectations and social beliefs of civilians. Adaptation and openness of police practices reveal that the implementation of laws and the reproduction of social order are co-produced by civilians, which enables a new perspective on police practices inside and outside of West Africa.##

BEEK, JAN & MIRCO GÖPFERT

„Ground work" und ,,paper work": Feldzugang bei Polizeiorganisationen in Westafrika

Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 136.2011:189-214

Keywords: fieldwork, police and fieldwork, bureaucracies and fieldwork, civilians and police, participant observation

 

##"Ground work" and „paper work" Access to police organisations in West Africa

Drawing on our experience requesting access to police organisations in Ghana and Niger, this article explores the organisation and operation of two West African bureaucracies. It focuses on the administrative modes and the state agents' routines in their dealing with civil actors. Exceptional and risk carrying requests such as ours concerning a permission to conduct participant observation in police organisations create insecurity on the part of the bureaucrats concerned. Although rarely expressed in field reports and often discounted as a series of fortunate coincidences, we consider the researcher's access (or refusal) a crucial and illuminating moment of fieldwork. In our case, both technical bureaucratic operations and informal networks played a central role in our own approach as well as in the state agents' work routines and reflections on their daily occupation. Following an emic description, we call these two modes of procedure "ground work" and "paper work". The oscillating between the two reflects an inevitable interlacing of bureaucratic and informal operations, characteristic for bureaucratic organisations worldwide.##

 

 

 

DIAWARA, MAMADOU 

Die Jagd nach den Piraten. Zur Herausbildung von Urheberrechten im Kontext der Oralität im subsaharischen Afrika

Sociologus 61.2011:69-89

Keywords: copyright, orality and copyright, intellectual property, property

 

##Hunting for Pirates. The Development of copyright in the context of Orality in Sub-Saharan Africa

Author rights have developed from centuries of legal acquisition of immaterial goods in the Western hemisphere. A pressing question in this context concerns the meaning and the effects which the imposition by the imperial West of these legal structures has upon legions of the world that had and will continue to have their own sets of rules concerning the treatment of such goods. This article will discuss the local practices concerning the treatment of intellectual property in sub-Saharan Africa before examining the local interpretation of the newly introduced regulations and concepts. It will be shown how local agents, aware of the challenges these new laws entail, succeed in benefiting from their disadvantaged status and from positive law. They explicitly achieve this by complaining about pirates robbing them of their respective returns and blaming the state for its inefficiency in upholding the author rights.##

 

 

 

DROTBOHM, HEIKE

Kreolische Konfigurationen der Rückkehr zwischen Zwang und Zuflucht. Die Bedeutung von Heimatbesuchen in Kap Verde

Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 136.2011:311-330

Keywords: return migration, migration, banderona festival, transnational festivals, ritualization, home, diaspora

 

##Creole configurations of return migration between coercion or the search for refuge. The meaning of return visits in Cape Verde

Based on anthropological research on Fogo and Brava, two Cape Verdean islands, this article focuses on migrant return visits and their particular meaning for "regrounding home", understood as an idea, a social construcrion as well as a physical place. After reflecting on the particularities of Cape Verde as a creole and transnational society since its historical beginnings, the author examines the banderona, a patron saint festivity, which since centuries annually draws thousands of migrants back to their islands of origins. What initially served as a hierarchic moment between colonial masters and slaves, later turned into a transnational ritual, used for celebrating the upward social mobility of migrant visitors and for redistributing their material gains. In our days these ritualized return visits constitute an important opportunity for reaffirming social ties and for negotiating asymmetric family relations. While non-migrant islanders make use of the festivity for articulating their needs and for claiming diasporic support, migrants express their social visibility and their willingness to contribute to a transnational livelihood. The author analyzes this articulated interest in maintaining home ties also in the context of the most recent shifts in the world economy, which force migrants to reassess their living arrangements in the diaspora as well as the viability of an eventual permanent return.##

 

DROTBOHM, HEIKE & INGRID KUMMELS

Einleitung: Afroatlantische Allianzen

Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 136.2011:27-46

Keywords: history of anthropology, anthropological theory, transnational migration, migration, postcolonial anthropology

 

##Introduction: Afro-Atlantic Alliances

This introduction outlines the theoretical framework of this special issue on "Afro-Atlantic Alliances". After summarizing key moments in the history of anthropological research along the Atlantic rim, the authors reflect on the interdisciplinary encounter which shapes the current debate on Afro-Atlantic cultures. By introducing "alliances" as a conceptual framework, ideas of relatedness and belonging as well as of entangled histories are recomposed in order to establish a methodology which aims at provincializing the traditional centers of power and at overcoming a methodological nationalism. This special issue brings together contri-butions on the impact of historical forms of return migration to Sierra Leone, on the meanings of contemporary migrant return visits to Cape Verde; on Mozambican students' agency in Cuba as well as in their country of origin; on Cuban artists' impact on race as an outcome of travelling between and performing in Havanna, Paris and New York; on transnational Yoruba religious networks in Cuba as well as on Cuban and Brazilian actors' strategies with regard to their religious practices and their migrant status in Germany. In the afterword to this thematic issue recent paradigm shifts in the study of the Afro-Atlantic world are discussed.##

 

 

 

EL SIOFI, MONA HANAFI

Der Westen – ein Sodom und Gomorrah? Westliche Frauen und Männer im Fokus ägyptischer Musliminnen

Sulzbach: Helmer Verlag 2009

212 pp., Euro 22,-; ISBN 3-89741-281-1

Keywords: gender studies, Muslim women, occidentalism, feminism, partnership, sexuality

 

The West – Sodom and Gomorrah? Western women and men in the focus of Egyptian muslimas

The author poses the question of how Egyptian Muslimas conceptualize the western world – as utterly depraved, the women living in the terror of seeming freedom? In this way she reverses the common perspective. Her study is based on fieldwork, describing living conditions of urban Egyptian women – family, partners, profession, religious questions, emancipation, and modernity, and she found very differentiated answers, much more diverse than the image of a Sodom and Gomorrah described in the media. She deals with patriarchal Egypt society, the ‚fight’ in the mini-universe of the family, ideas on the ideal male partner, what jobs mean to them, and the question of feminism.

 

 

 

FRUTH, BARBARA

The CBD in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC): The project "The Cuvette Centrale as a reservoir of medicinal plants" in the process of implementation

Curare 34.2011:51-62

Keywords: biological diversity (CBD), medicinal plants, traditional medicine,  Nagoya Protocol

 

##The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has three major objectives: 1) the conservation of biological diversity, 2) the sustainable use of its components, and 3) the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits. Here we exemplify implementation of the convention in DRC by presenting history concept and vision of the project "The Cuvette Centrale as reservoir of medicinal plants". Special attention is paid to local plant diversity with focus on medicinal plants, striving towards a better understanding of their threats and safeguard. For this, we document diversity and traditional use of plants in both (a) the country's interior and (b) the urban area of Kinshasa. Both in- and ex-situ measures designed for the conservation and sustainable use of specific plant resources for local and regional levels are presented. In order to develop visions beyond, the project has started a process of bringing together users and providers on a bilateral level to assess ways suitable to all parties to directly benefit from the utilization of indigenous plant resources towards the conservation of biological diversity and the sustainable use of its components. We show the current state of this process developing guidelines for a bottom-up approach of CBD implementation adapted to traditional requirements. The example shows both the potential as well as the urge for DRC to use its biological resources sustainably in order to safeguard them for future generations. It discusses the significance of the Nagoya Protocol adopted at the 10th Conference of the Parties in October 2010 for this and future processes.##

FRUTH, BARBARA ET AL.

Care for Health and Body: An Ethnobotanical Approach to Nkundo Plant Use (Cuvette Centrale, DRC) with Focus on the Significance of Indigenous Knowledge for the Human Skin

Curare 34.2011:261-281

Keywords: ethnobotany, Curette Centrale, medicinal plants, skin ailments, plant secondary compounds, Nkundo pharmacopeia, Bantu, ethnopharmacology

 

##The data presented here are based on a long-term study sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research on assessing the floral diversity of the Congo Basin with a focus on medicinal plants. Between 2002 and 2007, interviews concerning 446 vernacularly known plants were held with one of over 250 ethnic groups living in DRC, the Nkundo belonging to the Bantu people. Of these plants, about 85% were used, with the largest proportion, about 60% of all ethnospecies, applied in the medicinal context. 91 of 201 species used in medicinal applications, belonging to about 50 families, were applied in the context of skin problems. They were grouped into 12 disease groups. Most species were cited as being applicable for wounds, abscesses and ectoparasites, less lor onychia, mycosis, burns and eczema and least for allergies, ulcers, acne, aphtes and dermatosis. Here, we investigate the botanical, ethnospecific and phytochemical characteristics of the species cited. We assess the relation of plant secondary compounds and area of application and seek generalities as well as specificities of the skin-specific plants represented in Nkundo-pharmacopeia by reviewing literature on African medicinal plants used outside DRC. Our analyses are intended to document and assess the traditional knowledge of the Nkundo, which has only been transmitted orally up to now. ln this way, we hope to prevent its loss and to underline both the need for and significance of the floral diversity of the Cuvette Centrale, both for its traditional use and the protection of a world heritage site for nature and thus mankind.##

 

 

 

GUFLER, HERMANN J.

„The land has become bad“ Finding a solution to the troubled relationship between the Ntul and the past fons of Oku (Cameroon)

Archiv für Völkerkunde 59-60.2009:107-124

Keywords: Fons of Oku, Ntul clan, Mbele clan, divination, land rights

 

##In this paper I would like to examine one problem, which has been haunting the kingdom of Oku from its beginning up to the present time, viz., the troubled relationship between the Fons of Oku and the Ntul clan, the original inhabitants of Oku. The „Ntul problem“ seems to show its ugly head whenever the „land has become bad,“ i.e., when Oku is confronted with serious problems, either external or internal. The diviners  consulted at such times, invariably diagnose the problem as going back to the usurpation of power by the immigrant Mbele clan. According to one tradition it was Mkong Mote, the most important and, by now, with many legends surrounded ancestral Fon of Oku, who seized power from Baba ǝbfon, the king of the Ntul. Another version, documented by Bah (1996), attributed this feat to Nchiy, third in the King list given by Babɛy Ghande.##

 

 

 

KNÖRR, JACQUELINE

Das Coming-out der Diaspora als Heimat. Kreolische Identität in Sierra Leones Nachkriegsgesellschaft

Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 136.2011:331-356

Keywords: diaspora, Creole identity, home, purity, ethnic „purity“, indigeneity, Krio

 

##The coming-out of the diaspora as home. Creole identity in Sierra Leone’s post-war society

The Krio are descendants of liberated slaves, who, on the background of heterogeneous origins, developed a new ethnic identity. They tended to set themselves apart from the local population and differentiated among themselves by ascribing different degrees of purity to members of their community with purity being equated with non-mixture with locals. They were not considered "proper" natives by the local population and being a minority living almost exclusively in Freetown were seldom considered for political office beyond the local level. However, an increasing number of Krio have recently become politically engaged on the national level. Simultaneously, processes of selective indigenization are under way which help reconstruct Krio origins in ways that allow them to situate themselves in the national context more prominently. Their engagement nevertheless evokes ambivalent reactions. Being somewhat less "one’s own" and less "native" still bears negative connotations but as the reputation of tradition and indigeneity has suffered as a result of the war, being less associated with either also carries new and positive meanings. It seems that in this time of contested loyalties and identifications, the Krio are increasingly discovering and making use of the potentials of transethnic connectivity that lie in their creole heritage.##

 

 

 

KRECH, HANS

The Growing Influence of Al-Qaeda on the African Continent

Africa Spectrum 46,2.2011:125-137

Keywords: Al-Qaeda, terrorism, international terrorism, Islamism

 

##Al-Qaeda's influence in Africa is growing. From 2009 to 2011, activity by Al-Qaeda was noted in 19 African nations and regions. Four regional Al-Qaeda organizations operate on the continent, which in turn often have several sub-organizations: the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, the Libyan Islamic Frghting Group, Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (with its sub-organizations Al-Qaeda in Mali, Al-Qaeda in Mauritania, Al-Qaeda in Morocco and Al-Qaeda in Sudan) and Al-Shabab in Somalia. Since Osama

bin Laden's death on 2 May 2011, the influence of African leaders within Al-Qaeda has increased significantly. All three presumed members of the strategic command level originate from Africa. The revolutions of the Arab Spring have not harmed Al-Qaeda. This contribution highlights the potential for further expansion by Al-Qaeda on the African continent, and how this needs to be responded to.##

 

 

 

LANGE, DIERK

Origin of the Yoruba and „The lost tribes of Israel“

Anthropos 106-2011:579-595

Keywords: Yoruba, „tribes of Israel“, migrations, state foundation, conquest state, dynastic traditions, king lists, oral traditions

 

##On the basis of comparative studies between the dynastic tradition of the Ọyọ-Yoruba and ancient Near Eastern history, the present article argues that Yoruba traditions of provenance, claiming immigration from the Near East, are basically correct. According to Ọyọ-Yoruba tradition, the ancestral Yoruba saw the Assyrian conquests of the Israelite kingdom from the ninth and the eighth centuries B.C. from the perspective of the Israelites. After the fall of Samaria in 722 B.C., they were deported to eastern Syria and adopted the ruling Assyrian kings as their own. The collapse of the Assyrian empire is, however, mainly seen through the eyes of the Babylonian conquerors of Nineveh in 612 B.C. This second shift of perspective reflects the disillusionment of the Israelite and Babylonian deportees from Syria-Palestine towards the Assyrian oppressors. After the defeat of the Egypto-Assyrian forces at Carchemish in Syria in 605 B.C. numerous deportees followed the fleeing Egypto-Assyrian troops to the Nile valley, before continuing their migration to sub-Saharan Africa.##

 

 

 

LINDEMANN, STEFAN

The Ethnic Politics of Coup Avoidance: Evidence from Zambia and Uganda

Africa Spectrum 46,2.2011:3-42

Keywords: coup d’etat, military insurrection, coup avoidance, ethnic politics

 

##Though military interventions seem endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, more than a third of all countries have been able to avoid military coups. To solve this puzzle, this article relates the likelihood of military coups to the degree of ethnic congruence between civilian and military leaders, arguing that coup avoidance is most likely when government and army either exhibit the same ethnic bias or are both ethnically balanced. This argument is illustrated by a comparison of the diverging experiences of Zambia and Uganda. While Zambia is among Africa's coup-free countries, Uganda's vulnerability to military intervention has varied over time – with four coups under Obote and the Uganda National Liberation Front (UNLF) but no coups under Amin and Museveni. Drawing on original longitudinal data on the ethnic distibution of political and military posts, the article shows that the absence of military coups in Zambia goes back to the balanced composition of government and army. In Uganda, coup avoidance under Amin and Museveni can be linked to the fact that government and army exhibited the same ethnic bias, whereas the coups against the Obote and UNLF regimes reflected either ethnic incongruence between civilian and military leaders or the destabilising combination of a similarly polarised government and army.##

 

 

 

MEYER, CHRISTIAN

Körper und Sinne bei den Wolof Nordwest-Senegals. Eine mikroethnogra-phische Perspektive

Paideuma 57.2011:97-120

Keywords: Wolof, body, senses, universalism and senses, sensory experience, elders, interaction and senses

 

Body and senses among the Northwest Senegalese Wolof. A micro-ethnographical perspective

##Despite much interest being shown in the senses by anthropologists and ethnographers in the last two decades, the conundrum of the universal or culturally specific nature of sensory experiences, usages and meanings across cultures has not been resolved. This is partly due to methodological problems in effectively studying this phenomenon cross-culturally. This article suggests microethnography as an adequate method capable of escaping from this limbo. Drawing on thorough ethnographic fieldwork supported by videographic recordings in north-western Senegal, it explores the sensory worlds of elders in interaction on a Wolof village square. As will be shown, their embodied sensory practices differ fundamentally from those in Western settings, even though no individual sense is revealed to be dominant, as previous studies in the anthropology of the senses have suggested. In particular, Wolof interactants realize conversational functions with audio signals or touch that, in Western societies, are proved to be accomplished by gaze. These differences in embodied sensory practices are to be explained by conceptual, ecological and spatial rationales.##

 

 

 

NICOLAS, ANDREA

From process to procedure. Elders’ mediation and formality in Central Ethiopia

(Aethiopistische Forschungen 75)

Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag 2011

396 pp., Euro 76,-; ISBN 3-447-06611-2

Keywords: communication and law, elders and law, formality and law, law and mediation, mediation and law

 

##The basis for presenting the ethnographic material in this book is the ‚ethnography of communication’, a theory and method that were developed by the sociolinguist Dell Hymes... The descriptions and conclusions presented in this study are based synthesis of observations made during my stay in the field, various field recordings and transcriptions of interviews or verbal exchanges that I brought with me from Ethiopia, as well as in-depth analyses of video sequences after my return to Germany. Re-occurring patterns and consistencies between the single cases and oral descriptions were analysed, and examples drawn upon for illustration. The individual interviews and instances of participant observation used in this analysis are listed in the appendix... As a result of this empirical study it can be deduced that just as habitual actions can be instrumentalised, instrumental behaviour may become habitualised and generalised at a collective level. Such instrumental behaviour is thus applied in a 'routine' manner without loosing its effectiveness. While there are activities that are executed primarily because they are required by ‚the law’ or ‚the ancestors’, there are other actions that are well planned and means that are providently applied by participants in formal procedures. There is no open discussion, at least not in public, about some such consciously and deliberately used strategies. Laws, for instance, are seldom meant to be questioned. Despite the fact that officials may dissemble the contingent human processes that originally gave rise to a particular law (lest the law lose its 'eternal' force), a 'rule' may well constitute the outcome of a conscious act of decision-making. Rules and laws, over the course of history, have often been debated and negotiated in very specific decision-making settings by law-makers.##

 

 

 

PELICAN, MICHAELA

Researching South-South/South-East migration. Transnational relations of Cameroonian Muslim migrants

Tsantsa 16.2011:169-173

Keywords: migrants, south-south migration, Muslim migrants

 

##This article presents selected findings from an ongoing research project on the transnational relations of Cameroonian Muslim migrants. It highlights two aspects, namely the asymmetries and complexities of communication between migrants and families left behind, as well as migrant realities in Gabon and the United Arab Emirates. The project centers on South–South and South-East migration, thus challenging and complementing the focus on South-North migration prevailing in academic and policy-related research. It traces changing patterns and perceptions of mobility, explores migrants’ experiences in „foreign lands“ and their reflections about „home“, and engages with migration regimes as well as migrants’ responses to regulatory mechanisms.##

 

 

 

PLANKENSTEINER, BARBARA

„Vom Lorbeer des Entdeckers zum Palmenzweig edler Menschlichkeit“ Ethnografische Objekte und die Evolution des Reisewerks Oscar Baumanns

Archiv für Völkerkunde 57-58.2007-2008:221-246

Keywords: Baumann, O., artifacts, museology, traveling, travelogues, collections, photography

 

Ethnographic objects and the evolution of the travelogues of Oscar Baumann

Focusing traveling the question of their usefulness and results arises – the oeuvre, or corpus of works, or fruits resulting from travels is discussed in the case of Baumann, a „classical Africa traveler“ of the 19th century. The author presents the three facets of his endearvors – travels, collections, and photographs.

 

 

 

PLANKENSTEINER, BARBARA

„Auch hier gilt unsere Regel, Buschmanngut und Fremdgut auseinander-zuhalten“ Rudolf Pöchs Südafrika-Sammlung und ihre wissenschaftliche Bearbeitung durch Walter Hirschberg

Archiv für Völkerkunde 59-60.2009:95-106

Keywords: museology, artifacts, collecting artifacts, Hirschberg, W., Pöch, R., appropriation of material culture

 

The South Africa collection of Rudolf Pöch and its processing by Walter Hirschberg

The author critically analyzes and revises the Pöch collection and its scholarly processing by Hirschberg which is, accroding to Plankensteiner, the first attempt so far. This includes the question of whether Hirschberg’s analysis of the material agrees with Pöch’s intentions, as well as the question of how material culture is framed, ideologically appropriated and accordingly utilized in science depending on the zeitgeist.

 

 

 

SCHULZ, DOROTHEA E.

Mediale Vernetzung, ästhetische Aneignung und die Grenzen moralischer Gemeinschaft in Mali

Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 136.2011:47-68

Keywords: moral community, TV consumption, cultural traditions, traditions on TV, authentication, mass media, media and morality

 

##Translating cultural authenticity: television consumption and the limits of moral community in Mali

The article takes the tremendous populariry of televised productions of "Malian cultural traditions" as a window to explore the interlocking of mass mediation processes and state-orchestrated cultural production in the making of collective identities in postcolonial Mali. The article seeks to understand how television, as a particular technology and institution of mediation, plays into the process of "authentication" (understood as subjective processes through which notions of the authentic are sensually mediated and aesthetically re-cognized), and how it thereby complicates official invocations of national community by furthering spectators' subjective experiences of local particularity.##

 

 

 

STEINFORTH, ARNE S.

The Solid and the Liquid. Identifying Institutions and Fields of Healing

Curare 34.2011:193-200

Keywords: healing, agency, transformation, fields of healing, medical anthropology, institutions and healing, pluralism (medical), Bourdieu, P., agency

 

##In Africa as in other parts of the world, research in medical anthropology has, over some time now, recorded the emergence of new forms of healing practice that are marked by a recombination of elements taken from Western medicine, Christian faith healing, or other contexts. In applying the concept of (social) institutions, this paper uses the example of a specific Malawian healer in order to outline the analytic limitations posed by thinking of such an arrangement exclusively in terms of medical pluralism comprised of separate institutions of healing, and their subsequent syncretisation. Inspired by Bourdieu's concept of the 'field', I suggest distinguishing between different levels of analysis on which the different institutions of healing play, both empirically and analytically, very different roles. In so doing, this paper means to support on-going claims to put agency and dynamic processes of social transformation into focus of medical anthropology.##

 

 

 

THUBAUVILLE, SOPHIA

Unabhängige Fremde. Mobilität und Identität von Frauen in Maale (Südäthiopien)

Paideuma 57.2011:121-134

Keywords: Maale, identity, patrilineage, women of Maale, mobility

 

Independent strangers. Mobility and identity of Maale women (Southern Ethiopia)

##The Maale of southern Ethiopia are a parilineal and patrilocal society. Women move from one homestead to another one, while men usually stay with their patrilineage from childhood until death. While it has been argued that the movement of women leads to a lack of continuity which results in a weakening of their identities, this article demonstrates the advantages women gain by shifting residence. Instead of struggling to redefine their identities, they acquire multiple identities, which they can make rational use of.##

 

 

 

WILKENS, KATHARINA

Holy water and evil spirits. Religious healing in East Africa

(Beiträge zur Afrikaforschung 47)

Berlin: Lit Verlag 2011

289 pp., Euro 29.90; ISBN 3-643-11179-1

Keywords: spirits, healing, religious healing, evil spirits, Christianity, Marian faith healing

 

##In Tanzania, the Marian Faith Healing Ministry offers Catholic healing rituals under the patronage of the Virgin Mary. Exorcism and a special water service are central to the healing process. People bring physical, spiritual and social afflictions before the group's leader, Felicien Nkwera. Combining the perspectives of the study of religions and medical anthropology, the author analyses Nkwera's pastoral texts and the personal healing narratives of the members. Thus, a complex image of the healing process is created and framed within its Tanzanian interreligious context and its global conservative Catholic context.##

 

 

 

 

 

ZIPS, WERNER & MARKUS WEILENMANN (Eds.)

The governance of legal pluralism. Empirical studies from Africa and beyond

Wien: Lit Verlag 2011

304 pp., Euro 29.90; ISBN 3-8258-9822-9

Keywords: legal pluralism, pluralism of law, governance, democracy, custom, ethnicity, state law

 

##The notion of governance subsumes analytic approaches that have recently become highly popular in social sciences. It directs attention to a holistic understanding of the participation of non-state actors in political processes, the resulting policies, their facilitation and implementation, but also their threats and social consequences. This volume assembles studies from Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America to shed light on the complex governance interactions determined by different constellations of legal pluralism and, in turn, reshaping these dynamic arrangesments.##

ZIPS, WERNER & MARKUS WEILENMANN: Introduction: Gover-nance and Legal Pluralism – an emerging symbiotic relationship?

TURNER, BERTRAM: Salafiyya Activism in the Moroccan Souss: Legal Framing, Demand for Justice and Social Integration of an Islamic Movement

LAMBI, JULIUS: The Struggle for Democratic Governance in Cameroon: An Analysis of the February 2008 Protests

UBINK, JANINE: Land, Chiefs and Custom in Peri-Urban Ghana. Traditional Governance in an Environment of Legal and Institutional Pluralism

WEILENMANN, MARKUS: Between Ethnicity, Competing Powers and Legal Change - a Statistical Investigation on the Working of Burundi's State Courts

ZIPS-MAIRITSCH, MANUELA: Kalahari Struggles. Indigeneity, Internal Displacement and Nature Conservation in Botswana – Interviews with Mathambo Ngakaeaja

MOGWE, ALICE: Human Rights Struggles. Where Social Conflicts and Confrontations are Negotiated -The Case of the Displacement of 'Basarwa' from the Central Kalahari Game Reserve in Botswana

ZIPS, WERNER: Fashion Design under a Leopard's Skin. Emerging Forms of Complementary Governance in Botswana

RABO, ANNIKA: Legal Pluralism and Family Law in Syria

SAFITRI, MYRNA: Langkawana’s community forest: Decentralization and legal pluralism in Indonesian state forestlands

UMALI, VIOLEDA A.: Dynamics of legal pluralism in policy-making: The case of the population and reproductive health debate in the Philippines

GABBERT, WOLFGANG: Indigenous law as state law. Recent trends in Latin American legal pluralism

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

THE AMERICAS

 

 

 

ALVARADO LEYTON, CRISTIAN

Die Zukunft einer kritischen Ethnologie Lateinamerikas. Ein Literatur-bericht

Anthropos 106-2011:115-133

Keywords: critical anthropology, identity, essentialism, political anthropology

 

The future of a critical anthropology of Latin America. A survey of the literature

##People of Latin America are gaining ever more attention in the US due to their rising visibility. Two recently published comprehensive works of critical anthropologists on Latin America both reflect this occurring change and provide important insights into contemporary social processes. By focusing on four central issues - politics of identity and essentialism, groups in between whiteness and difference, violence, the experiential space "Latin America" - this review article shows that critical anthropology offers substantial contributions to the study of Latin America and to the discipline in general, while expressing the conviction that a politically committed analysis heightens anthropology's relevance.##

 

 

 

BENDER, CORA

Die Entdeckung der indigenen Moderne. Indianische Medienwelten und Wissenskulturen in den USA

Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag 2011

350 pp., Euro 34.80; ISBN 3-8376-1102-1

Kewords: native Americans, Indians (American), media, knowledge, modernity, indigenous modernity

 

The discovery of indigenous modernity. Indian media worlds and knowledge cultures in the USA

Bender inquires into the role of Indian media, particularly broadcasting and newspapers, in the present process of the emergence of their establishing a good command in indigenous knowledge culture – consisting of an educational system of their own and a renewed and manifold festival culture. Bender has focused on the Ojibwa Reservation of Lac Courte Oreilles (population 5000) in Northwestern Wisconsin. This case shows that the original inhabitants of North America live in modernity since a long time, in their specific indigenous version of modernity. After introducing the place of fieldwork the author discusses conditions for the emergence of indigenous media, among others the Treaty Rights controversy. Further chapters deal with the educational system, festival culture, and more generally: religion, knowledge and identity in this indigenous modernity which includes questions of Christianization and literalization, millenarianism and religious diversification, and subjective religious imaginary.

 

 

 

BUSSEL, GERARD W. VAN

Indianer in die Reservationen – ihr Besitz in die Museen; oder, die Bergung letzter Güter nördlicher Plains-Kulturen durch den Wiener Pomologen Hugo M. Müller

Archiv für Völkerkunde 59-60.2009:203-223

Keywords: Indians (American), Plains Indians

 

Safeguarding the last goods of northern Plains Cultures by the Viennese pomologist Hugo M. Müller

The author describes Müller’s life and background, how the objects were obtained and handed over to the Viennese Museum, and a couple of objects are described.

 

 

 

CIPOLLETTI, MARIA SUSANA

¿Hacia un shamanismo „light“?. Cambios y adaptaciones en procesos religiosos en la Amazonía peruano-ecuatoriana (siglos XVIII al XXI)

Anthropos 106-2011:463-473

Keywords: shamanism, hallucinogens, cultural change, globalization

 

Changes and adaptations in Amazonian (Peru, Ecuador) religious processes (from the XVIII. to the XXI. centuries)

##Drawing on eighteenth-century Jesuit sources as well as on results of an extensive fieldwork conducted since 1983, the author analyzes phenomena of persistence and change in the shamanism of the Secoya Indians (Western Tucano) in the Amazon region, on the Peruvian-Ecuadorian border. The changes include the gradual contraction of the social power of shamans to the religious realm, the reduction in the use of hallucinogenic plants, and the expansion of shamanism beyond the traditional sphere of action.##

 

 

 

DORSCH, HAUKE

Black or Red Atlantic? - Mozambican Students in Cuba and their Reinte-gration at Home

Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 136.2011:289-310

Keywords: south-south relations, educational migration, socialism, agency, individual approach, migration and education

 

##This article presents the experiences of Mozambican children who were sent in the 1970s and 80s to study in Cuba as well as their professional and ideological orientatiorn after their return. Challenging collectivising perspectives on either an Anthropology of the Afro-Atlantic or Socialist Internationalism, this contribution focuses on an individual and his agency in the highly regulated and disciplined context of Cuban schools. However, this context must be described in order to appreciate the agency. Thus, the article shortly presents Cuban-African relations after the Cuban Revolution, it describes how the students were selected, sent abroad, were assigned their subjects, were sent back home and finally integrated into the work force – or in the latter case – how the state failed to do so. It shortly looks at the current situation of African students in Cuba with respect to issues of race and identity and how the Cuban discourse of Cuba, being an Afro-Latin nation, owing its development to the work of Africans and paying it back through its missions of solidarity, is expcriernced by African students.##

 

 

 

FEEST, CHRISTIAN & VIVIANE LUIZA DA SILVA

Between tradition and modernity. The Bororo in photographs of the 1930s

Archiv für Völkerkunde 59-60.2009:167-202

Keywords: Bororo, photography, visual anthropology, museology, Baldi, M.

 

##The single largest group of images in the collection of the Museum für Völkerkunde Wien (Museum of Ethnology Vienna) are the photographs taken by the Austro-Brazilian photographer Mario Baldi (1896-1957) between the 1920s and the time of his death, when this group of documents was received from his estate. Since the pictures (negatives, prints, and slides), numbering somewhere between 10,000 and 15,000, were mostly without documentation, it was decided to catalogue them under a single number, in the vague expectation that one day the problem of the missing documentation could be solved... Mario Baldi’s Bororo photographs turn out to be a major contribution, both in terms of quantity and quality, to the visual documentation of the Bororo in the 1930s. The present paper was designed to put Baldi’s work in a comparative perspective in an attempt to point out both its merits and shortcomings as well as to provide a bsis for a brief discussion of the contributions of visual representations to the ethnographic data base.##

 

 

 

FELLNER, ASTRID M. (Ed.)

Body signs: The Latino/a body in cultural production

(American Studies in Austria 6)

Wien: Lit Verlag 2011

234 pp., Euro 19.90; ISBN 3-643-90182-8

Keywords: body language, signs, Latino culture, Chicano culture, body and writing, identity in literature

 

##This collection of scholarly articles as well as creative writings by leading Chicano/a writers and critics focuses on the primacy of the body as the site and means of enunciation in U.S. Latino/a culture. Exploring the multiple forms of how the body is written, performed, and represented, the essays address a series of questions such as: In what ways is the body depicted as the site where representations of difference and identity are inscribed? By considering how cultural signifiers, practices, and discourses have been creatively reconfigured, this volume asserts the significance of the body in Latino/a cultural production.##

FELLNER, ASTRID M.: Introduction: “Corporeality and textuality in US Latino/a cultural productions

BRUCE-NOVOA, JUAN: Unpacking America’s boxed gifts: From Cabeza de Vaca to Donald Duck

WALDRON, JOHN V.: Disordered bodies and the great chain of being, A history without end: Edgardo Rodríguez Juliá’s La noche oscura del Niño Avilés

LEITNER, CLAUDIA: „Malintzi of the green dress will open the door“: The plumed serpent, Foucault’s History of Sexuality, and colonial forgetting

GANSER, ALEXANDRA: War wounds: Bodily inscriptions of trauma and cultural memory in Leslie Marmon Silko’s Ceremony

HEIDE, MARKUS: Body languages/Body politics: Performativity in John Rechy’s City of night and The miraculous day of Amalia Gómez

EMBRY, MARCUS: Mapping a new literary century in the Caribbean

FELLNER, ASTRID M.: Subversive bodily acts: The photography of Laura Aguilar

EINSIEDEL, DORIS: Bodies and no-bodies in Julia Alvarez’s novel ¡Yo! And in her essay collection Something to declare

KÖHLER, ANGELIKA: The body as borderland: Reconceptualization of the body in recent Chicana literature

ORTIZ TAYLOR, SHEILA: Excerpts from Assisted living

 

 

 

FRÜHSORGE, LARS

Getanzte Erinnerung und der Traum von einem indianischen Königtum. Spuren einer kolonialzeitlichen Heilserwartungsbewegung im Hochland Guatemalas

Anthropos 106-2011:87-97

Keywords: K'iche', Tzul, A., kingship, ceremonial dances, dance

 

Traces of salvation expectations in Guatemala Highland in colonial times

##During an insurrection in the community of Totonicapán in 1820 Atanasio Tzul was crowned to be King of the K'iche'. In this article it is argued that his coronation was not a spontaneous event. In fact, it can be related to a complex of ceremonial dances and oral histories. Through an analysis of ethnohistorical sources from the 16th century it is shown how the heirs of the pre-Hispanic elite developed the idea of an indigenous kingship. These ideas influenced the development of ritual dance dramas re-enacting the Spanish Conquest. Various sources confirm that beside these dances oral traditions about pre-Hispanic history survived well into the 18th century and that there was a belief in a return of the ancestors and the rebirth of the indigenous kingship. This belief, which culminated at the end of the colonial period, outlasted the events in Totonicapán and even today traces of it can be observed.##

 

 

GRIMMIG, MARTINA

Goldene Tropen. Die Koproduktion natürlicher Ressourcen und kultureller Differenz in Guayana

Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag 2011

293 pp., Euro 32.80; ISBN 3-89942-751-3

Keywords: difference, cultural difference, resources, natural resources, productive inclusion and marginalization, periphery, center and periphery, production and discourse, biological diversity, indigenous knowledge, capitalism, expansion